Difference between revisions of "HANDBOOK TO THE IOT LARGE-SCALE PILOTS PROGRAMME"

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IoT LSP handbook contains the reference terminology facilitating cross fertilisation among all the Large-Scale Pilots (LSPs) calls, to ensure the use of a common terminology in addressing the technical (protocols, formats, APIs, etc.) and non-technical (business models, testing and validation methodologies, regulatory framework, etc.) issues. This is implemented offline and will be transfer online (i.e. web platform for exchange/community building) during the next phase.
 
 
The IoT LSP handbook aims at disseminating knowledge about IoT terminology among the IoT European Large-Scale Pilot Programme projects and IoT stakeholders at large, and at providing easy access to a large range of technical and non-technical IoT. The document is a reference work, including a collection of terms, that is intended to provide ready reference in the field of IoT technologies and applications. The document is designed to be easily consul=A Handbook to the IoT Large-Scale Pilots Programme=
 
 
 
IoT LSP handbook contains the reference terminology facilitating cross fertilisation among all the Large-Scale Pilots (LSPs) calls, to ensure the use of a common terminology in addressing the technical (protocols, formats, APIs, etc.) and non-technical (business models, testing and validation methodologies, regulatory framework, etc.) issues. This is implemented offline and will be transfer online (i.e. web platform for exchange/community building) during the next phase.  
 
IoT LSP handbook contains the reference terminology facilitating cross fertilisation among all the Large-Scale Pilots (LSPs) calls, to ensure the use of a common terminology in addressing the technical (protocols, formats, APIs, etc.) and non-technical (business models, testing and validation methodologies, regulatory framework, etc.) issues. This is implemented offline and will be transfer online (i.e. web platform for exchange/community building) during the next phase.  
  
 
The IoT LSP handbook aims at disseminating knowledge about IoT terminology among the IoT European Large-Scale Pilot Programme projects and IoT stakeholders at large, and at providing easy access to a large range of technical and non-technical IoT. The document is a reference work, including a collection of terms, that is intended to provide ready reference in the field of IoT technologies and applications. The document is designed to be easily consulted and provide quick answers in the IoT area. The IoT LSP handbook addresses will be expanded and revised during the lifetime of the IoT European Large-Scale Pilot Programme.
 
The IoT LSP handbook aims at disseminating knowledge about IoT terminology among the IoT European Large-Scale Pilot Programme projects and IoT stakeholders at large, and at providing easy access to a large range of technical and non-technical IoT. The document is a reference work, including a collection of terms, that is intended to provide ready reference in the field of IoT technologies and applications. The document is designed to be easily consulted and provide quick answers in the IoT area. The IoT LSP handbook addresses will be expanded and revised during the lifetime of the IoT European Large-Scale Pilot Programme.
  
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__TOC__
  
'''5G: '''The technology designation of the next generation mobile network. Standardization work through ITU-R / IMT-2020 is expected to be completed by 2020, however, it will take several years before "all" expectations are met and widely available (e.g. implementation of frequencies up to 30 GHz). There are high expectations and requirements with respect to speeds, latency and energy efficiency. A very large increase in capacity and much faster internet on mobile phones is expected. The frequency bands are not finally established; however, the EU advisory body Radio Spectrum Policy Group proposes three pioneer frequency bands for fifth generation mobile services: 694-790 MHz, 3.4-3.8 GHz, and 24.25-27.5 GHz [ <nowiki>[1]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[2]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[</nowiki>3]].''' '''Keywords: ''Network Communication Layer.''
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== Glossary ==
  
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'''Shortcuts to the glossary'''
  
'''A'''
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[[#09|0-9]] [[#A|A]] [[#B|B]] [[#C|C]] [[#D|D]] [[#E|E]] [[#F|F]] [[#G|G]] [[#H|H]] [[#I|I]] [[#J|J]] [[#K|K]] [[#L|L]] [[#M|M]] [[#N|N]] [[#O|O]] [[#P|P]] [[#Q|Q]] [[#R|R]] [[#S|S]] [[#T|T]] [[#U|U]] [[#V|V]] [[#X|X]] [[#Y|Y]] [[#Z|Z]]
  
AAL: See Ambient Assisted Living.
 
  
'''Accountability: '''The obligation of an individual or organization to account for its activities, to accept responsibility for them, and to disclose their results in a transparent manner. It also includes responsibility for money or other property entrusted to them [ <nowiki>[4]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
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<span id="09">
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'''0-9'''
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</span>
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----
  
'''Active and healthy ageing: '''Active ageing means helping people stay in charge of their own lives for as long as possible as they age and, where possible, to contribute to the economy and society [ <nowiki>[5]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts, Application Layer.''
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'''2G: '''Second-generation digital cellular networks used by mobile phones, designed as a replacement for analogue first-generation radio (1G). Designed primarily for voice using digital standards.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Network communication layer|Network communication layer]]''</small>
  
'''Adaptive Gateway: '''A gateway which can adapted to different standards and make it easy to exchange data [ <nowiki>[6]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Physical Layer.''
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'''3G: '''Third-generation wireless mobile telecommunications technology required by International Mobile Telecommunications for the year 2000 (IMT-2000) standard from International Telecommunication Union (ITU) to support at least 200 kbps at peak rate. First mobile broadband utilizing IP protocols - added text and image messaging to voice phone calls<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Network communication layer|Network communication layer]]''</small>
  
'''Ageing Well: '''A better quality of life and better health through prolonged independent living; active ageing at work ensuring that older workers can continue to improve and practise their skills; and increased social participation[ <nowiki> [7]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts, Application Layer.''
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'''5G: '''The technology designation of the next generation mobile network. Standardization work through ITU-R / IMT-2020 is expected to be completed by 2020, however, it will take several years before "all" expectations are met and widely available (e.g. implementation of frequencies up to 30 GHz). There are high expectations and requirements with respect to speeds, latency and energy efficiency. A very large increase in capacity and much faster internet on mobile phones is expected. The frequency bands are not finally established; however, the EU advisory body Radio Spectrum [[#Policy|policy]] Group proposes three pioneer frequency bands for fifth generation mobile services: 694-790 MHz, 3.4-3.8 GHz, and 24.25-27.5 GHz <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef1"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef2"/><ref  group="Ref" name="HandbookRef3"/>.<br/>
 +
<small> Keywords: ''[[#Network communication layer|Network communication layer]]''</small>
  
'''Agile: '''Agile software development describes a set of values and principles for software development under which requirements and solutions evolve through the collaborative effort of self-organizing cross-functional teams. It advocates adaptive planning, evolutionary development, early delivery, and continuous improvement as well as encouraging rapid and flexible response to change. These principles support the definition and continuing evolution of many software development methods[ <nowiki> [8]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
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'''5G Infrastructure Public-Private Partnership (5G PPP): '''The 5G PPP is a joint initiative between the European Commission and the ICT industry. The goal is to deliver solutions, architectures, technologies and standards for the ubiquitous next generation communication infrastructures to maintain and strengthen the global technological lead <ref  group="Ref" name="HandbookRef263"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]]''</small>
  
'''Agri-food logistics: '''The economic and commercial activity related to the transportation of agrifood goods to customers. The application of digital technologies such as IoT to agrifood logistics enables the overall logistics operation to be optimized by contributing real-time virtualization, logistics connectivity and logistics intelligence.''' '''Keywords: ''Application Layer, Farming.''
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'''5G New Radio (5G NR): '''5G NR is a new air interface being developed for 5G. It is being developed to support the wide variety of services, devices and deployments 5G will encompass, and across diverse spectrum <ref  group="Ref" name="HandbookRef264"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Network communication layer|Network communication layer]], [[#Wireless|Wireless]]''</small>
  
'''AI: '''See Artificial Intelligence.
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=== A-C ===
  
'''Ambient assisted living: '''Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) comprises interoperable concepts, products and services, that combine new information, communication technologies (ICT) and social environments with the aim of improving and increasing quality of life for people of all ages. AAL can best be understood as an age-based assistance system for a healthy and independent life catering to the varying abilities of its users. It also outlines AAL as being primarily concerned with the individual in his or her immediate environment by offering user-friendly interfaces for all sorts of equipment in the home and outside, taking into account that many older people have impairments in vision, hearing, mobility or dexterity [ <nowiki>[9]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts, Application Layer, Physical Layer.''
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<span id="A">
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'''A'''
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</span>
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----
  
'''Ambient Intelligence: '''An emerging discipline that brings intelligence to our everyday environments and makes those environments responsive to us [ <nowiki>[10]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Application Layer.''
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'''A Root of Trust''':An immutable boot process within an IoT system based on unique identifiers, cryptographic keys and on-chip memory, to protect the device from being compromised at the most fundamental level. The Chain of Trust extends the Root of Trust into subsequent applications and use cases. Given that IoT systems rely on a large number of devices that collect and process information, it is paramount to ensure their credibility so that they are honest and leverage correct outputs.<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef245"/>.<br/>
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<small> Keywords: ''[[#AI|AI]], [[#IoT|IoT]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]]''</small>
  
'''Ambient Localization: '''Localization is the process of adapting a product to a particular country, market or region [ <nowiki>[11]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Application Layer.''
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'''AAL''': See [[#AAL|Ambient Assisted Living]].
  
'''Ambient sensing: '''Ambient sensing refers to the set of devices embedded/hidden in a network using contextual information and enabling the use of artificial intelligence to support people carrying out their day-to-day activities. This concept goes back to the 1990s where these tasks were performed by a combination of consumer electronics, telecommunication protocols and computing. As IoT was booming, devices grew smaller and more powerful, enabling the use of greater amounts of sensing devices and, therefore, data, resulting in the development of the smart home, smart buildings, and the smart office [ <nowiki>[12]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Application Layer, Sensor, Environmental.''
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'''Accountability: '''The obligation of an individual or organization to account for its activities, to accept responsibility for them, and to disclose their results in a transparent manner. It also includes responsibility for money or other property entrusted to them <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef4"/>.<br/>
 +
<small> Keywords: ''[[#AI|AI]], [[#IoT|IoT]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]]''</small>
  
API''': '''See Application Programming Interface.
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'''Active and healthy ageing: '''Active ageing means helping people stay in charge of their own lives for as long as possible as they age and, where possible, to contribute to the economy and society <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef5"/>.''' <br/>
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<small>Keywords: '' [[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Application Programming Interface (API): '''An API is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building application software. In general terms, it is a set of clearly defined methods of communication between various software components. A good API makes it easier to develop a computer program by providing all the building blocks, which are then put together by the programmer. An API may be for a web-based system, operating system, database system, computer hardware or software library [ <nowiki>[13]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Abstraction Layer.''
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'''Actuators: '''Specially kind of IoT devices capable of executing actions.<br/>
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<small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Architecture: '''In reference to information technology, the architecture covers the overall system design and the logical and physical interrelationships between its components. The architecture specifies the HW, SW, access methods and protocols used throughout the system. It is also used as a description of framework and guidelines including development methodologies, modelling tools and organizational structures to build new systems. The architectural framework for the IoT includes descriptions of various IoT domains, definitions of IoT domain abstractions and identification of commonalities between different IoT domains. The IoT architecture will grow in an evolutionary way from a variety of separate contributions. The main challenges for the IoT architecture are the complexity and cooperative work for developing, adopting and maintaining an effective cross-industry technology reference architecture that will allow for true interoperability and ease of deployment [ <nowiki>[14]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[15]</nowiki>][ <nowiki> [16]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
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'''Adaptive Gateway: '''A gateway which can adapted to different standards and make it easy to exchange [[#Data|data]] <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef6"/>.'''<br/>
 +
<small>Keywords: ''[[#Physical layer|Physical layer]].''</small>
  
'''Artificial Intelligence (AI): '''A term used for technology (devices, machines, systems) that is able to simulate human cognition (intelligence, cognitive computing) such as learning, understanding, reasoning, decision making, and interacting with other devices or humans in a complex environment. Typical applications are related to speech recognition, autonomous vehicles, transmission route optimization, quick decisions/actions based on big and complex data, or simply replacing routine work [ <nowiki>[14]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
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'''Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS): '''Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) are vehicle-based intelligent safety systems. These integrated in-vehicle or infrastructure-based systems aid the human driver with either steering, braking or accelerating by including intelligent speed adaptation and advanced braking systems<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef230"/>.''' <br/>
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<small>Keywords: ''[[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]].''</small>
  
'''Artistic practices: '''A practice is the actual application or use of an idea, belief, or method, as opposed to theories relating to it. Artistic practices, much like engineering and scientific practices, produce knowledge in research processes. David Thomas describes art practice as a way of researching through the practice of making art. Such making is not just doing, but is a complex informed physical, theoretical and intellectual activity where public and private worlds meet. Moreover, artistic practice, as research-in-the making, constitutes a betrayal of prevailing cultural assumptions, an interminable renouncement of normalized research representations in favour of the contingent problematic that emerges during arts practice. The practice of the arts is central in artistic research as it embodies ideas that are given form in the process of making artwork. In this context, there is a field of artistic practice contributing to innovation in ICT technologies. It emerged out of the crossover of several fields of art and science having technology as a common ground. In this intersection, new digital technologies and applications are the main outcome. In its realm, creativity in digital technologies often finds natural ways to direct proof-of-concept. It is exactly here that the field finds its contact points with neighbouring fields of research and practice, namely industrial partners. The achievement of concrete practical outcomes is one of the most important aspects when it comes to technological transfer to society. Artistic practices in technological contexts, such as IoT, are naturally close-to-market as technology is their medium of expression [ <nowiki>[17]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[18]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[19]</nowiki>][ <nowiki> [20]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts, STARTS.''
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'''Adverse climatic event: '''Weather conditions, such as frost, storms and hail, ice, heavy rain or severe drought, which can be considered to be a natural disaster <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef338"/>.''' <br/>
  
'''Augmented Reality (AR): '''The real-time view of the real physical world with the ability to add audio-visual effects (unlike virtual reality (VR) which replaces the real world with simulations). These audio-visual effects are virtual means/enhancements integrated with the real-world objects to create added value. Highlighting in the form of graphics, audio or text can be used to catch users' attention and indirectly inform subsequent actions[ <nowiki> [14]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Ageing Well: '''A better quality of life and better health through prolonged independent living; active ageing at work ensuring that older workers can continue to improve and practise their skills; and increased social participation <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef7"/>.<br/>
 +
<small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]], [[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]].''</small>
  
'''Automation pyramid: '''General design pattern for creating information and communication infrastructures (ICT) for industry [ <nowiki>[173]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
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'''Agile: '''Agile software development describes a set of values and principles for software development under which requirements and solutions evolve through the collaborative effort of self-organizing cross-functional teams. It advocates adaptive planning, evolutionary development, early delivery, and continuous improvement as well as encouraging rapid and flexible response to change. These principles support the definition and continuing evolution of many software development methods <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef8"/>.<br/>
 +
<small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Autonomic computing: '''The ability of IT infrastructures to adapt to change in a complex environment in accordance with business policies and objectives [ <nowiki>[17</nowiki>4]]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
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'''Agri-food logistics: '''The economic and commercial activity related to the transportation of [[#Agrifood|Agrifood]] goods to customers. The application of digital technologies such as IoT to [[#Agrifood|agrifood]] logistics enables the overall logistics operation to be optimized by contributing real-time virtualization, logistics connectivity and logistics intelligence.''' <br/>
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<small>Keywords: ''[[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]], [[#Farming|Farming]].''</small>
  
'''Autonomous Farming: '''The increasing maturity of digital and automation technologies is driving an increased offer in autonomous farming machinery. Autonomous farming machinery is able to operate without direct intervention of humans thanks to a combination of technologies such as geolocation, auto-steering, computer vision, Internet of Things, sensing and data analytics, among others [ <nowiki>[21]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Collaboration and Process Layer, Farming.''
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'''Agricultural activity: '''Tthe production, rearing or growing of agricultural products including harvesting, milking, breeding animals and keeping animals for farming purposes; or
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maintaining the agricultural area in a state which makes it suitable for grazing or cultivation without any particular preparatory action going beyond usual agricultural methods and machinery based on criteria to be defined by member states on the basis of a framework established by the Commission; orcarrying out a minimum activity to be established by member states on agricultural areas naturally kept in a state suitable for grazing or cultivation <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef338"/>''' <br/>
  
'''Autonomy: '''The ability to generate one’s own purposes without any instruction from outside [ <nowiki>[175]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
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<span id="AAL">'''Ambient assisted living: '''</span>Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) comprises interoperable concepts, products and services, that combine new information, communication technologies (ICT) and social environments with the aim of improving and increasing quality of life for people of all ages. AAL can best be understood as an age-based assistance system for a healthy and independent life catering to the varying abilities of its users. It also outlines AAL as being primarily concerned with the individual in his or her immediate environment by offering user-friendly interfaces for all sorts of equipment in the home and outside, taking into account that many older people have impairments in vision, hearing, mobility or dexterity <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef9"/>.''' <br/>
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<small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]], [[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]], [[#Physical layer|Physical layer]].''</small>
  
'''Availability: '''''(i) General:''''' '''Characteristic of a resource that is committable, operable, or usable on demand to perform its designated or required function. It is the aggregate of the resource's accessibility, reliability, maintainability, serviceability, and securability.''' '''''(ii) Computing:'' Percentage of time a computer system is available for use. Formula: Uptime x 100 ÷ (Uptime + Downtime).''' '''''(iii) Quality control:'' Ability of an item to perform its designated function, whenever required [ <nowiki>[22]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
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'''Ambient Intelligence: '''An emerging discipline that brings intelligence to our everyday environments and makes those environments responsive to us <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef10"/>. <br/>
 +
<small>Keywords: ''[[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]].''</small>
  
 +
'''Ambient Localization: '''Localization is the process of adapting a product to a particular country, market or region <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef11"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]].''</small>
  
 +
'''Ambient sensing: '''Ambient sensing refers to the set of [[#Device|device]]s embedded/hidden in a network using contextual information and enabling the use of artificial intelligence to support people carrying out their day-to-day activities. This concept goes back to the 1990s where these tasks were performed by a combination of consumer electronics, telecommunication protocols and computing. As IoT was booming, devices grew smaller and more powerful, enabling the use of greater amounts of sensing devices and, therefore, [[#Data|data]], resulting in the development of the smart home, smart buildings, and the smart office <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef12"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]].''</small>
  
'''B'''
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'''Alliance for Internet of Things Innovation (AIOTI): '''AIOTI was established in 2016 and aim to strengthen the dialogue and interaction among IoT players in Europe, and to contribute to the creation of a dynamic European IoT ecosystem to speed up the take up of IoT. Members of the Alliance include key IoT industrial players (large companies, SMEs and start-ups) as well as European research centres, universities, associations and public <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef279"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Barcodes: '''A barcode is an optical and machine-readable form of data used to identify objects. A bar code allows a machine to retrieve a great deal of information about an object as soon as the object is identified through a unique visual code format created by drawing adjacent lines with variable widths and spaces [ <nowiki>[23]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Physical Layer.''
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'''Application Entity (AE):'''AE is an entity in the application layer that implements an M2M application service logic. Each application service logic can be resident in a number of M2M nodes and/or more than once on a single M2M node. Each execution instance of an application service logic is termed an AE and is identified with a unique AE-ID <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef350"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]]''</small>
  
'''Benchmarking: '''Benchmarking is a process by which internal processes and performances are compared directly with recognised best practices as an external standard for comparison and goal setting that promotes learning from others [ <nowiki>[24]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
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<span id="API">'''Application Programming Interface (API):</span> '''An API is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building application software. In general terms, it is a set of clearly defined methods of communication between various software components. A good API makes it easier to develop a computer program by providing all the building blocks, which are then put together by the programmer. An API may be for a web-based system, operating system, database system, computer hardware or software library <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef13"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Abstractionlayer|Abstraction Layer]]''</small>
  
'''Blue economy: '''The Blue Economy acknowledges that some aspects of so-called "green living", such as buying organic food and using certain forms of renewable energy, can be economically out of reach for large sections of the population [ <nowiki>[25]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
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<span id="ARC">'''Architecture: </span>'''In reference to information technology, the architecture covers the overall system design and the logical and physical interrelationships between its components. The architecture specifies the HW, SW, access methods and protocols used throughout the system. It is also used as a description of framework and guidelines including development methodologies, modelling tools and organizational structures to build new systems. The architectural framework for the IoT includes descriptions of various IoT domains, definitions of IoT domain abstractions and identification of commonalities between different IoT domains. The IoT architecture will grow in an evolutionary way from a variety of separate contributions. The main challenges for the IoT architecture are the complexity and cooperative work for developing, adopting and maintaining an effective cross-[[#Industry|industry]] technology reference architecture that will allow for true interoperability and ease of deployment <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef14"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef15"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef16"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Business ecosystem: '''An economic community supported by a foundation of interacting organizations and individuals. This economic community produces goods and services of value to customers, who are themselves members of the ecosystem. The member organisms also include suppliers, lead producers, competitors, and other stakeholders [ <nowiki>[26]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Artistic practices: '''A practice is the actual application or use of an idea, belief, or method, as opposed to theories relating to it. Artistic practices, much like engineering and scientific practices, produce knowledge in research processes. David Thomas describes art practice as a way of researching through the practice of making art. Such making is not just doing, but is a complex informed physical, theoretical and intellectual activity where public and private worlds meet. Moreover, artistic practice, as research-in-the making, constitutes a betrayal of prevailing cultural assumptions, an interminable renouncement of normalized research representations in favour of the contingent problematic that emerges during arts practice. The practice of the arts is central in artistic research as it embodies ideas that are given form in the process of making artwork. In this context, there is a field of artistic practice contributing to [[#Innovation|innovation]] in ICT technologies. It emerged out of the crossover of several fields of art and science having technology as a common ground. In this intersection, new digital technologies and applications are the main outcome. In its realm, creativity in digital technologies often finds natural ways to direct proof-of-concept. It is exactly here that the field finds its contact points with neighbouring fields of research and practice, namely industrial partners. The achievement of concrete practical outcomes is one of the most important aspects when it comes to technological transfer to society. Artistic practices in technological contexts, such as IoT, are naturally close-to-market as technology is their medium of expression <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef17"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef18"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef19"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef20"/>.<br/>''' '''<small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Business models: '''A business model is the ‘description of the rationale of how an organisation creates, delivers and captures value’, it is in its essence how a business generates (or plans to generate) a revenue stream that supports the delivery of a value proposition to a client segment [ <nowiki>[27]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
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'''Augmented Reality (AR): '''The real-time view of the real physical world with the ability to add audio-visual effects (unlike virtual reality (VR) which replaces the real world with simulations). These audio-visual effects are virtual means/enhancements integrated with the real-world objects to create added value. Highlighting in the form of graphics, audio or text can be used to catch users' attention and indirectly inform subsequent actions <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef14"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
 +
'''Authentication: '''The act of confirming the truth of an attribute of an entity or a single piece of data by using passwords, PINs, smart cards, digital certificates, or biometrics to sign in. In contrast with Identification, Authentication is the process of actually confirming the Identity of a device or confirming that data arriving or leaving are genuine and have not been tampered with or forged <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef241"/>. <br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#AI|AI]], [[#IoT|IoT]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]]''</small>
  
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'''Authorization: '''The function of specifying access rights to resources and ensuring that any request for data or control of a system is managed within these policies. Authorization mechanisms tend to be centralized, which may be a challenge in IoT systems that tend to be increasingly decentralized, with- out an authority involved. Whatever the degree of democratized authorization, where more entities can grant permissions, the authorization system must be consistent, persistent and attack resistant <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef242"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#AI|AI]], [[#IoT|IoT]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]]''</small>
  
'''C'''
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<span id="ADS">'''Automated Driving Systems: </span>''' Automated Driving Systems, also known as self-driving cars, are vehicles where the driving tasks are performed by electronics and machinery instead of human driver. The vehicle is capable of sensing its environment and moving with little or no human input. The automated system has control over the vehicle but allows the human operator to leave all responsibilities to the system <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef225"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Certification: '''Third-party attestation related to products, processes, systems or persons. Note that certification is applicable to all objects of conformity assessment except for conformity assessment bodies themselves, to which accreditation is applicable [ <nowiki>[176]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
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'''Automation pyramid: '''General design pattern for creating information and communication infrastructures (ICT) for [[#Industry|industry]] <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef173"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Circular Economy: '''An economic model based inter alia on sharing, leasing, reuse, repair, refurbishment and recycling, in an (almost) closed loop, aiming to retain the highest utility and value of products, components and materials at all times, i.e. a model in which waste is seen as a resource and is managed by design[ <nowiki> [28]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
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'''Autonomic computing: '''The ability of IT infrastructures to adapt to change in a complex environment in accordance with business policies and objectives <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef174"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Citizen Centric: '''An adjective applied to e-Government services enabled by information and communication technology that fosters information integration across departmental lines, governmental units, and multi-sector organizations. These services, instead of forcing the user to understand their internal organization and adapt to them, respond to users' needs and behaviours even connecting various departments and increasing both their efficiency and effectiveness[ <nowiki> [29]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts, e-Government.''
+
'''Autonomous Driving Levels: '''[[#ADS|Automated driving systems]] are classified depending on their automation levels. These are going from 0 (no automation) where the driver performs all the driving tasks, up to 5 (full automation) where the vehicle is capable of performing all driving functions under all conditions <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef226/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#ADS|Automated driving systems]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Cloud Computing: '''The term Cloud refers to networks hosting an often-large number of users through remote connection enabling a centralized storage of data and collaborative work. They can be categorized into Public (public spaces for users on which companies provide quick access), Private (owned and operated by single companies/users for their particular purposes) and Hybrid (combining a private foundation but also providing public access). Cloud computing involves delivering all kinds of data, applications, multimedia, etc. over the internet through different models of use, namely Software as a Service (SaaS, where companies offer cloud-based applications able to be connected through users), Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS, on which remote online servers, networking and data centres can be used by customers) and Platform as a Service (PaaS, combining both and, thus, eliminating the need to purchase and maintain hardware, software and hosting). Cloud computing tightly relates to IoT as the straightforward way to direct the huge amount of data collected by sensors/field devices to its destination[ <nowiki> [30]</nowiki>][ <nowiki> [31]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[32]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Service Layer,'' ''Cloud, IaaS, SaaS.''
+
'''Autonomous farming: '''The increasing maturity of digital and automation technologies is driving an increased offer in autonomous [[#Farming|farming]] machinery. Autonomous farming machinery is able to operate without direct intervention of humans thanks to a combination of technologies such as geolocation, auto-steering, computer vision, Internet of things, sensing and Data Analytics, among others <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef21"/>.<br/> <small>Keywords: ''[[#Collaboration and Process Layer|Collaboration and Process Layer]], [[#Farming|farming]].''</small>
  
'''Co-creation: '''Value co-creation in IoT platforms ecosystems is addressing activities where customers, end-users, application owners and developers are involved as active participants in the design and development of personalized IoT applications, use cases, products, services, and experiences in IoT-platform ecosystems. In this context, the modernist dichotomy of producers as value creators and consumers as value destroyers is currently losing traction: consumers – or prosumers – exert their power in the marketplace through constructive collective action with other societal actors such as developers, hackers, users, etc. beyond the providers’ control. This is common practice, for instance, in the world of Open Source software and hardware where collective effort, social interaction and group influence are all crucial to the development and use of products like Linux or Arduino. Moreover, co-creation in IoT doesn’t solely pertain to human-centric design and design-thinking. Artistic thinking is also a key resource. Artists are facilitators of dialogue and are in a privileged position to empower and deepen IoT experiences. An example of a company facilitating co-creative practices in IoT is Little Bits, an open-source kit of electronic modules that snap together with magnets in a way to let anyone – children or rocket engineers – prototype or play [ <nowiki>[33]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[34]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[35]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts, Design, Arts, Experimentation.''
+
'''Autonomy: '''The ability to generate one’s own purposes without any instruction from outside <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef175"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Cognitive IoT (CIoT): '''In CIoT, cognitive computing technologies are included in the IoT network to add artificial intelligence and signal processing. Physical and virtual objects are interconnected and behave like "thinking agents" (machine learning, decision making) performing tasks with minimum human intervention. CIoT is particularly relevant to handle the big increase in IoT devices expected, and to utilize the huge amounts of data generated [ <nowiki>[36]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[37]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Availability: '''''(i) General:''''' '''Characteristic of a resource that is committable, operable, or usable on demand to perform its designated or required function. It is the aggregate of the resource's accessibility, reliability, maintainability, serviceability, and securability.''' '''''(ii) Computing:'' Percentage of time a computer system is available for use. Formula: Uptime x 100 ÷ (Uptime + Downtime).''' '''''(iii) Quality control:'' Ability of an item to perform its designated function, whenever required <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef22"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Connected Supply Chain'''
 
  
Supply Chain Management is defined as the integration of key business processes from the end-user through to original suppliers that provide products, services, and information and hence add value for customers and other stakeholders. In the context of IoT, a Connected Supply Chain is one that takes advantage of Information Technologies to integrate suppliers/partnering firms in virtual enterprise and supply chain[ <nowiki> [38]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Application Layer.''
+
<span id="B">
 +
'''B'''
 +
</span>
 +
----
  
'''Connectivity: '''The ability of a computer, program, device, or system to connect with one or more others[ <nowiki> [39]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Network Communication Layer.''
+
'''Barcodes: '''A barcode is an optical and machine-readable form of [[#Data|data]] used to identify objects. A bar [[#Code|Code]] allows a machine to retrieve a great deal of information about an object as soon as the object is identified through a unique visual code format created by drawing adjacent lines with variable widths and spaces <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef23"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Physical layer|physical layer]].''</small>
  
'''Consumer awareness: '''The understanding by an individual of their rights as a consumer concerning available products and services being marketed and sold. The concept involves four categories: safety, choice, information, and the right to be heard [ <nowiki>[40]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Benchmarking: '''Benchmarking is a process by which internal processes and performances are compared directly with recognised best practices as an external standard for comparison and goal setting that promotes learning from others <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef24"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Corrective Maintenance: '''Also called run-to-failure reactive maintenance, corrective maintenance is the simplest maintenance policy where machine interventions (repairs) are only performed when a failure in operation occurs [ <nowiki>[16]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts, Industry.''
+
'''Big data : '''Big data is a term referring to high volume information (data) assets that demand cost-effective, innovative forms of information processing that enable enhanced insight, decision making, and process automation <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef325"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''CPS: '''Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are integrations of computation, networking, and physical processes [ <nowiki>[41]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Abstraction Layer.''
+
'''Big Data Value Association (BDVA): '''BDVA is an industry-driven international not–for-profit organisation with 200 European members (large, small, and medium sized industries as well as research and user organizations). BDVA is the private counterpart to the EU Commission to implement the Big Data Value PPP program.  BDVA and the Big Data Value PPP pursue a common shared vision of positioning Europe as the world leader in the creation of Big Data Value.
 +
The mission of the BDVA is to develop the Innovation Ecosystem that will enable the data and AI-driven digital transformation in Europe <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef326"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Creation: '''Creation is the action or process of bringing something into existence. Creation often describes the act of producing something for the first time and is, in this connotation, often linked to artistic creation. Artistic creation can bring resourceful insights in the process of building lively, user-centred and trustworthy IoT systems for broader adoption. David Bohm (1927-1992) advocated for dialogue among disciplines as the core of creativity. The arts are more about creation than creativity. However, artists can play a crucial role as catalysts of innovation in IoT by enabling an open dialogue with society in general and thereby fostering its process of uptake. Results of art and technology research projects are in their majority intend to take the form of proof of concept – they are creations. Knowledge is materialized in concrete applications which, very often, including usability testing in their early stages. This is one of the reasons why many artists have been at the origin of new technologies. The example of the Berlin-based company ART+COM is key. The company created the Terravision system in 1994 that many consider to be the prequel to Google Earth. It can be said that the artistic origin of one of the most successful worldwide on-line platforms lies in Europe, but was commercially explored elsewhere. More recently, Eduardo Miranda has developed the new bio- musical computer which potential s will certainly take some time to be unveiled[ <nowiki> [35]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[19]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts, Innovation, Prototype,'' ''STARTS.''
+
'''Biodiversity: '''The variability among living organisms from all sources, including terrestrial, marine, and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part. It includes diversity within species (genetic diversity), between species (species diversity), and between ecosystems (ecosystem diversity) <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef338"/>.<br/>
  
'''Critical approach to IoT: '''To think out-of-the-box is a well-known objective in innovation processes. Artists, however, are more interested in getting rid of the box. It is this disruptive approach that is seen as fundamental to create a critical approach to technological developments. In this context, the integration of artists in technological research processes can be instrumental for the attribution of meaning to new technologies. A solid critical approach is fundamental for competitiveness based on knowledge and creativity. The critical approach is one of the main differential elements between artists and designers. An artist involved in a technological challenge would go deeper in the analysis of the challenge, with a critical eye. On the other hand, a designer would be driven by finding a solution - problem solving.  An example of artistic critical approach in IoT is the work of artist James Brindle who is trying to build his own self-driving car and has published all the code developed in pursuit of the DIY self-driving car via this link <nowiki>https://github.com/stml/austeer.</nowiki> Brindle says “Self-driving cars bring together a bunch of really interesting technologies - such as machine vision and intelligence - with crucial social issues such as the atomization and changing nature of labour, the shift of power to corporate elites and Silicon Valley, and the quasi-religious faith in computation as the only framework for the production of truth - and hence, ethics and social justice. The attempt to build my own car is a process of understanding how the dominant narratives of these technologies are produced, and could be changed”[ <nowiki> [42]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[19]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[4</nowiki>3]].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts,'' ''STARTS, Designers, Innovation.''
+
'''Biofuel: '''This is a fuel (biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethane) that is produced by a biological process (as opposed to a geological process). Biofuels can be in a solid, liquid or gaseous form <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef338"/>.<br/>
  
'''Cyber physical systems: '''Cyber-physical systems are combinations of intelligent physical components, objects and systems with embedded computing and storage possibilities, which get connected through networks and are the enablers of the smart factory concept of Industry 4.0 in the scope of the Internet of Things, Data and Services scope, with a focus on processes[ <nowiki> [44]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Biosensors: '''A biosensor is an analytical device, used for the detection of a chemical substance, that combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef248"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
 +
'''Blockchain: '''Blockchain is an architectural design and a type of distributed ledger for maintaining a permanent and tamper-proof record of transactional data. A blockchain act as a decentralized database that is managed by computers belonging to a peer-to-peer network. Each of the computers in the distributed network maintains a copy of the ledger to prevent a single point of failure and all copies are updated and validated simultaneously <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef265"/>. <br/><small>Keywords:  ''[[#Security|Security]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
 +
'''Blue economy: '''The Blue Economy acknowledges that some aspects of so-called "green living", such as buying organic food and using certain forms of renewable energy, can be economically out of reach for large sections of the population <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef25"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''D'''
+
'''Broadband: '''It is a high-data-rate connection to the Internet <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef299"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Data access: '''Ability to make use of the data in an information system resource. Data access refers to a user's ability to access or retrieve data stored within a database or other repository. Users who have data access can store, retrieve, move or manipulate stored data, which can be stored on a wide range of hard drives and external devices [ <nowiki>[45]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Business ecosystem: '''An economic community supported by a foundation of interacting organizations and individuals. This economic community produces goods and services of value to customers, who are themselves members of the ecosystem. The member organisms also include suppliers, lead producers, competitors, and other stakeholders <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef26"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Data Analytics: '''Data analytics comprises the needed operations needed to be performed so as to extract valuable information out of data, including discovery, interpretation and modelling. It makes full use of mathematical/statistical algorithms combined with performance and programming techniques. Data analytics is often tied to Big Data. In this respect, IoT is a key enabler for data analytics, as IoT devices produce huge amounts of information that can susceptible to be used to generate models, studying patterns, feed intelligent decision systems and more, etc.[ <nowiki> [46]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[47]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Abstraction Layer, Data, Analytics.''
+
'''Business models: '''A business model is the ‘description of the rationale of how an organisation creates, delivers and captures value’, it is in its essence how a business generates (or plans to generate) a revenue stream that supports the delivery of a value proposition to a client segment <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef27"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Data ownership: '''Under EU law, personal data can only be gathered legally under strict conditions and, for a legitimate purpose. Furthermore, persons or organisations that collect and manage your personal information must protect it from misuse and must respect certain rights of the data’s owners which are guaranteed by EU law. [ <nowiki>[48]</nowiki>]'''. '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Business-to-Business (B2B) model: '''The Business-to-Business (B2B) model refers to the exchange of products, services or information between businesses <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef300"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Data protection: '''Under EU law, personal data can only be gathered legally under strict conditions, for a legitimate purpose. Furthermore, persons or organisations which collect and manage your personal information must protect it from misuse and must respect certain rights of the data owners which are guaranteed by EU law [ <nowiki>[49]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Business-to-Business-to-Consumer (B2B2C) model: '''The Business-to-Business-to-Consumer (B2B2C) model extends the B2B model to include e-commerce for the consumers (B2C) <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef301"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Data security: '''Data security refers to the protection of information by using appropriate technical measures that shall be taken against unauthorised or unlawful access or processing, and against accidental loss, destruction, or damage [ <nowiki>[50]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Business-to-Consumer (B2C) model: '''The Business-to-Consumer (B2C) model refers to the transactions conducted directly between a company and consumers (end-users of products/services) <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef302"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Data-Driven Farming: '''The use of big data and contextual analysis to support decision making with the aim of reaching increasing productivity and profitability through precision agriculture.''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts, Application Layer, Physical Layer, Processing Layer.''
 
  
'''Decision Support System (DSS): '''A computer-based information system that supports business or organizational decision-making activities. DSSs serve the management, operations, and planning levels of an organization (usually mid- or/and upper management) and help people make decisions about problems that may be rapidly changing and not easily specified in advance, i.e. unstructured and semi-structured decision problems. Decision support systems can be either fully computerized, human-powered or a combination of both. [ <nowiki>[51]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Application Layer.''
+
<span id="C">
 +
'''C'''
 +
</span>
 +
----
  
'''Deep learning: '''Deep learning mimics human neural pathways to analyse unstructured data, providing multiple outputs/decisions through layered abstraction and pattern recognition [ <nowiki>[52]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Abstraction Layer, Application Layer, Processing Layer''
+
'''Cellular V2X (C-V2X: '''C-V2X is specified by 3GPP and is realized as LTE-V2X (3GPP rel. 14/15) for short- and long-range communication. The short-range mode works independently of cellular networks, supports V2V, V2I and V2P communication, uses direct side-link communication over PC5 interface, uses orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) in the 5.9GHz frequency band, and its MAC layer is based on semi-persistent scheduling allowing deterministic sharing of the medium among multiple stations in a distributed manner. While the long-range mode is cellular mobile network dependent and supports V2N communication, i.e. up/down link communication between vehicles and base stations in a cellular LTE network over Uu interface. The next release 5G NR-V2X (5G New Radio V2X, rel. 16) address improvements such as lower latency, increased reliable communication and higher data rates to support autonomous driving. 5G NR-V2X will complement LTE-V2X, i.e. not replace but co-exist with LTE-V2X <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef351"/>.<br/> <small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
DEI''': '''See Digitising European Industry.
+
'''Certification: '''Third-party attestation related to products, processes, systems or persons. Note that certification is applicable to all objects of conformity assessment except for conformity assessment bodies themselves, to which accreditation is applicable <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef176"/>.<br/> <small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Demand-driven Farming: '''A farming operation that is driven by the demand that the farm experiences (or foresees) from successive stages in the supply chain (food processors, businesses, consumers). Demand-driven farming is facilitated by the combination of technologies such as IoT or (predictive) data analytics. [ <nowiki>[16]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Application Layer, Farming.''
+
'''Circular Economy: '''An economic model based inter alia on sharing, leasing, reuse, repair, refurbishment and recycling, in an (almost) closed loop, aiming to retain the highest utility and value of products, components and materials at all times, i.e. a model in which waste is seen as a resource and is managed by design <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef28"/>.<br/> <small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Devices: '''Mechanical, electrical, or electronic contrivance with a specific purpose. [ <nowiki>[177]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Physical Layer.''
+
'''Citizen Centric: '''An adjective applied to e-Government services enabled by information and communication technology that fosters information integration across departmental lines, governmental units, and multi-sector organizations. These services, instead of forcing the user to understand their internal organization and adapt to them, respond to users' needs and behaviours even connecting various departments and increasing both their efficiency and effectiveness <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef29"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Device Management: '''Device management refers to the process of monitoring the implementation, operation and maintenance of physical or virtual devices. IoT device management implies a set of operations including provisioning and authentication, configuration and control, monitoring and diagnosis, software updates and maintenance[ <nowiki> [53]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Application Layer, Security, Authentication, Management.''
+
<span id="Cloud">'''Cloud Computing: '''</span>The term Cloud refers to networks hosting an often-large number of users through remote connection enabling a centralized storage of [[#Data|data]] and collaborative work. They can be categorized into Public (public spaces for users on which companies provide quick access), Private (owned and operated by single companies/users for their particular purposes) and Hybrid (combining a private foundation but also providing public access). Cloud computing involves delivering all kinds of data, applications, multimedia, etc. over the internet through different models of use, namely software as a Service SaaS, where companies offer cloud-based applications able to be connected through users), Infrastructure as a Service IaaS, on which remote online servers, networking and Data centres can be used by customers) and Platform as a Service (PaaS, combining both and, thus, eliminating the need to purchase and maintain hardware, software and hosting). Cloud computing tightly relates to IoT as the straightforward way to direct the huge amount of data collected by sensors/field [[#device|device]]s to its destination <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef30"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef31"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef32"/>.<br/> <small>Keywords: ''[[#Service layer|Service layer]].''</small>
  
'''Digital: '''Digital describes electronic technology that generates, stores, and processes data in terms of two states: positive and non-positive [ <nowiki>[54]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Processing Layer.''
+
'''Co-creation: '''Value co-creation in IoT platforms ecosystems is addressing activities where customers, end-users, application owners and developers are involved as active participants in the design and development of personalized IoT applications, use cases, products, services, and experiences in IoT-platform ecosystems. In this context, the modernist dichotomy of producers as value creators and consumers as value destroyers is currently losing traction: Consumers – or prosumers – exert their power in the marketplace through constructive collective action with other societal actors such as developers, hackers, users, etc. beyond the providers’ control. This is common practice, for instance, in the world of Open Source software and hardware where collective effort, social interaction and group influence are all crucial to the development and use of products like Linux or Arduino. Moreover, co-creation in IoT doesn’t solely pertain to Human-centric design and design-thinking. Artistic thinking is also a key resource. Artists are facilitators of dialogue and are in a privileged position to empower and deepen IoT experiences. An example of a company facilitating co-creative practices in IoT is Little Bits, an open-source kit of electronic modules that snap together with magnets in a way to let anyone – children or rocket engineers – prototype or play <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef33"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef34"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef35"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Digital assistants: '''Applications that perform digital tasks for the user using speech recognition and natural language processing, e.g. Siri, Alexis.''' '''Keywords: ''Service Layer, Application Layer,'' ''Processing Layer.''
+
'''Cognitive IoT (CIoT): '''In CIoT, cognitive computing technologies are included in the IoT network to add artificial intelligence and signal processing. Physical and virtual objects are interconnected and behave like "thinking agents" (machine learning, decision making) performing tasks with minimum human intervention. CIoT is particularly relevant to handle the big increase in IoT [[#device|devices]] expected, and to utilize the huge amounts of [[#Data|data]] generated <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef36"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef37"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Digital Automation: '''See Smart Manufacturing.
+
'''Collaboration: '''Enables AI-based IoT systems to self-organize around a common goal; for example, in the presence of a threat, as well as to collaborate with humans, both physically (e.g., human-robot collaboration) and by exchanging information (human-machine interfaces). Collaboration is an emergent property of complex interactions and dynamics, increasingly present in industry. Industry-grade AI will not be concentrated on a single device or system. Instead, many different AI-enabled subsystems will be distributed (distributed AI) across IoT nodes, embedded devices and other edge devices (embedded AI) <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef235"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
''''''Digital economy: '''The sum of all economic activity that relies upon or produces internet-enabled technologies like e-commerce, cloud computing, artificial intelligence and the Internet of Things [ <nowiki>[55]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Collaboration and Process Layer.''
+
'''Common Services Entity (CSE): '''A CSE represents an instantiation of a set of "common service functions" of the M2M environments. Such service functions are exposed to other entities through the Mca and Mcc reference points. Reference point Mcn is used for accessing underlying NSE. Each CSE is identified with a unique CSE-ID <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef352"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Service layer|Service layer]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Digital Industrial Platforms: '''A Digital Industrial Platform integrates (data from) various functions implemented by different technologies via clearly specified interfaces and makes data available for use by applications. Digital Industrial Platforms bring together different technologies, applications and services. They open up data from e.g. the machines, products and operators on a shop floor, make it accessible to e.g. monitoring and control applications, may provide open interfaces that allow third-parties to develop applications on top, and connect different stakeholders, such as users and application developers [ <nowiki>[56]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Abstraction Layer.''
+
'''Computer security incident response team (CSIRT): '''CSIRT is an expert group handling computer security. They receive reports of security breaches, conducts analyses of the reports and responds to the senders. A CSIRT may be an established group or an ad hoc assembly <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef310"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Security|Security]],[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Digital Innovation: '''Digital innovation is the application of new technologies to existing business problems or practices. The unique properties of digital technology enable new types of innovation processes that are distinctly different from the analogue innovation processes of the Industrial Era<nowiki> [</nowiki>[ 57]][ .] Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Conditional automation: '''The driving-mode specific performance by an automated driving system of all aspects of the dynamic driving task with the expectation that the human driver will respond appropriately to a request to intervene<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef293"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Digital Manufacturing: '''See Smart Manufacturing.
+
'''Confidentiality: '''A set functionality that limits access or places restrictions on certain types of information, with the goal of preventing unauthorized access. Confidentiality is usually achieved through encryption and crypto- graphic mechanisms and is essential within an IoT ecosystem where a large amount of information is exchanged among the nodes<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef243"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#AI|AI]], [[#IoT|IoT]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]]''</small>
  
'''Digital Platforms: '''Digital platforms are the base upon which an increasing number of connection-based activities – marketplace, social, and political - are being organized. If the Industrial Revolution was organized around the factory, today’s changes are organized around platforms and algorithms applied to enormous databases running in the cloud [ <nowiki>[58]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Connected Supply Chain: '''
 +
Supply Chain management is defined as the integration of key business processes from the end-user through to original suppliers that provide products, services, and information and hence add value for customers and other stakeholders. In the context of IoT, a Connected Supply Chain is one that takes advantage of Information Technologies to integrate suppliers/partnering firms in virtual enterprise and supply chain <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef38"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]].''</small>
  
'''Digital rights management: '''Digital rights management (DRM) is access-control technology used by manufacturers, publishers, and copyright holders to limit the use of digital devices or information. It describes the technology that prevents unauthorized distribution and use of content, media, or devices [ <nowiki>[59]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Connectivity: '''The ability of a computer, program, [[#device|device]], or system to connect with one or more others <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef39"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Network communication layer|Network communication layer]].''</small>
  
'''Digital Single Market: '''A Digital Single Market is one in which the free movement of persons, services and capital is ensured and where the individuals and businesses can seamlessly access and exercise online activities under conditions of fair competition, and a high level of consumer and personal data protection, irrespective of their nationality or place of residence [ <nowiki>[60]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts, Policy.''
+
'''Consent: '''‘Consent’ of the data subject means any freely given, specific, informed and unambiguous indication of the data subject’s wishes by which he or she, by a statement or by a clear affirmative action, signifies agreement to the processing of personal data relating to him or her <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef315"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Digitising European Industry (DEI): '''The DEI Strategy was launched in April 2016 by the European Commission as an articulated set of measures to help European industry, SMEs, researchers and public authorities make the most of digital technologies such as IoT [ <nowiki>[61]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts, Industry, Policy.''
+
'''Consumer awareness: '''The understanding by an individual of their rights as a consumer concerning available products and services being marketed and sold. The concept involves four categories: safety, choice, information, and the right to be heard <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef40"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''DSM: '''See Digital Single Market.
+
'''Context-aware computing: '''Computer operations in which collect and analyse situational and environmental information about user activities, places and things are used to anticipate immediate needs and proactively offer enriched, situation-aware and usable content, functions and experiences <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef312"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
 +
'''Context-awareness: '''The ability of a system or a system component (e.g. mobile devices) to collect information about its environment at any given time and adapt behaviours accordingly <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef311"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
 +
'''Controller: '''‘Controller’ means the natural or legal person, public authority, agency or other body which, alone or jointly with others, determines the purposes and means of the processing of personal data; where the purposes and means of such processing are determined by Union or Member State law, the controller or the specific criteria for its nomination may be provided for by Union or Member State law <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef303"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''E'''
+
'''COP: '''COP (Common Operational Picture) is a component that provides an API that describes the current state of large open air events, i.e. active alerts, people count, sound level etc.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Edge computing: '''Edge computing is a way to optimize cloud computing systems by using edge device computational capabilities to run analytic/knowledge generation functions and, thus, reducing the processes performed on the cloud. Locating this data processing near the data sources also allows a reduction of the bandwidth as only relevant aggregated information is transferred. The application of edge computing to IoT might be the solution to the current concern about not having enough resources at cloud level to process the overall data being reported by IoT devices. Nevertheless, there are some barriers to overcome to reach a truly functional IoT edge computing network, such as the potential unavailability of devices due to its often used wireless link or the scheduling/coordination problems that may arise when deploying it at large scale [ <nowiki>[62]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Network Communication Layer, Cloud, Edge, Devices.''
+
<span id="Core network">'''Core Network: '''</span>The part of the network that provides services to mobile subscribers through the radio access network (RAN). It is also the gateway to other networks, for instance to the public- switched telephone network or to public clouds.<br/>
  
''''''Embedded systems: '''Embedded systems are dedicated mini-computers serving as parts of a larger mechanical, electrical or communications system. They often suffer from real-time and/or computing capabilities constraints. These systems include hardware and mechanical parts and are commonly used as monitoring and control devices for a plethora of applications. IoT disrupted the way embedded systems were traditionally conceived as they require very strict miniaturization, communication and processing capabilities. This disruption touches upon not just hardware design for embedded systems, but also software programming models and Operating System design [ <nowiki>[63]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[64]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Physical Layer, Things, Devices, Hardware.''
+
'''Corrective Maintenance: '''Also called run-to-failure reactive maintenance, corrective maintenance is the simplest maintenance [[#Policy|policy]] where machine interventions (repairs) are only performed when a failure in operation occurs <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef16"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]], [[#Industry|Industry]].''</small>
  
'''Enabling network: '''The organization of communication between various devices in applications such as smart grids, smart meters, smart houses, smart healthcare systems, smart industries, etc.[ <nowiki> [65]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Network Communication Layer.''
+
'''CPS: '''Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are integrations of computation, networking, and physical processes <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef41"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Abstractionlayer|Abstraction Layer]]''</small>
  
'''End-to-end security: '''''(i)'' Safeguarding information in a secure telecommunication system by cryptographic or protected distribution system means from point of origin to point of destination. ''(ii)'' Safeguarding information in an information system from point of origin to point of destination[ <nowiki> [66</nowiki>]]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts, Security Layer.''
+
'''Creation: '''Creation is the action or process of bringing something into existence. Creation often describes the act of producing something for the first time and is, in this connotation, often linked to artistic creation. Artistic creation can bring resourceful insights in the process of building lively, user-centred and [[#Trust|trust]]worthy IoT systems for broader adoption. David Bohm (1927-1992) advocated for dialogue among disciplines as the core of creativity. The arts are more about creation than creativity. However, artists can play a crucial role as catalysts of [[#Innovation|innovation]] in IoT by enabling an open dialogue with society in general and thereby fostering its process of uptake. Results of art and technology [[#Research|research]] projects are in their majority intend to take the form of proof of concept – they are creations. Knowledge is materialized in concrete applications which, very often, including usability testing in their early stages. This is one of the reasons why many artists have been at the origin of new technologies. The example of the Berlin-based company ART+COM is key. The company created the Terravision system in 1994 that many consider to be the prequel to Google Earth. It can be said that the artistic origin of one of the most successful worldwide on-line platforms lies in Europe, but was commercially explored elsewhere. More recently, Eduardo Miranda has developed the new bio- musical computer which potential s will certainly take some time to be unveiled <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef35"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef19"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Ethics: '''Ethics refers to universally- or socially-accepted norms and behaviours. Ethics are concerned with what is good for the individual and society and the associated behaviours and actions [ <nowiki>[67]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Critical approach to IoT: '''To think out-of-the-box is a well-known objective in [[#Innovation|innovation]] processes. Artists, however, are more interested in getting rid of the box. It is this disruptive approach that is seen as fundamental to create a critical approach to technological developments. In this context, the integration of artists in technological [[#Research|research]] processes can be instrumental for the attribution of meaning to new technologies. A solid critical approach is fundamental for competitiveness based on knowledge and creativity. The critical approach is one of the main differential elements between artists and designers. An artist involved in a technological challenge would go deeper in the analysis of the challenge, with a critical eye. On the other hand, a designer would be driven by finding a solution - problem solving.  An example of artistic critical approach in IoT is the work of artist James Brindle who is trying to build his own self-driving car and has published all the code developed in pursuit of the DIY self-driving car via this link <nowiki>https://github.com/stml/austeer.</nowiki> Brindle says “Self-driving cars bring together a bunch of really interesting technologies - such as machine vision and intelligence - with crucial social issues such as the atomization and changing nature of labour, the shift of power to corporate elites and Silicon Valley, and the quasi-religious faith in computation as the only framework for the production of truth - and hence, ethics and social justice. The attempt to build my own car is a process of understanding how the dominant narratives of these technologies are produced, and could be changed” <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef42"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef19"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef43"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]]''</small>
  
European Platforms Initiative (EPI): See IoT European Platforms Initiative (IoT-EPI).
+
'''Cross-domain indicators: '''Indicators intercepting those processes and features pertaining to more than one domain potentially referring to more than one LSP but not to the IoT Programme as a whole <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef286"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Experience Readiness Level: '''The Experience Readiness Level (ERL) measures the capability of IoT systems to trigger experiences, a measure that steps away from the modernist ideal of the «perfect object» and embraces the potential of a thriving, dynamic exchange between technology and art to empower the spectator and deepen his or her experience. The ERL is a complimentary approach to Technology Readiness Level (TRL), Market Readiness Level (MRL) and Production Readiness Level (PRL). Kevin Ashton in 1999 coined the term IoT, and understood it as an evolution of the Internet whereby "we empower computers with their own means of gathering information, so they can see, hear and smell the world for themselves, in all its random glory". Nowadays, we understand the power of the hyper-connected society is about empowering citizens, not computers. A shift of attention from labs and drawing boards to involving existing and new communities at an early stage of IoT development is fostered and advocated. If the goal is the adoption of IoT by masses in full confidence, it's important we stop thinking about IoT as objects and start thinking of IoT as triggers for better lives. The Experience Readiness Level (ERL) is a new notion that introduces the focus on 'better lives' and moves the attention from the production to the consumption of IoT [ <nowiki>[68]</nowiki>][ <nowiki> [69]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts, Consumer.''
+
'''Cryptography: '''Discipline that embodies principles, means, and mechanisms for the transformation of data in order to hide its information content, prevent its undetected modification and/or prevent its unauthorized use <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef304"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
 +
'''Cyber physical systems: '''Cyber-physical systems are combinations of intelligent physical components, objects and systems with embedded computing and storage possibilities, which get connected through networks and are the enablers of the smart factory concept of [[#Industry|industry]] 4.0 in the scope of the Internet of things, [[#Data|data]] and Services scope, with a focus on processes <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef44"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
  
'''F'''
+
=== D-F ===
  
'''Farming: '''The activity or business of raising crops or livestock[ <nowiki> [70]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
<span id="D">
 +
'''D'''
 +
</span>
 +
----
  
'''Federation of platforms: '''An approach to enterprise architecture that allows interoperability and information-sharing between semi-autonomous business units [ <nowiki>[71]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Collaboration and Process Layer.''
+
'''DANTE (Digital Audio Network Through Ethernet) protocol: '''DANTE is a combination of software, hardware, and network protocols that deliver uncompressed, multi-channel, low-latency digital audio over a standard Ethernet network using Layer 3 IP packets <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef340"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Protocol|Protocol]].''</small>
  
'''Fog computing: '''Fog computing refers to a mechanism similar to edge computing, but using one or more end devices acting as gateways/data-processing units performing substantial storage, control, configuration, measurement and management activities for a given number of associated end devices and, therefore, reducing the cloud processing needs [ <nowiki>[72]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Network Communication Layer, Cloud, Edge, Devices.''
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'''Data access: '''Ability to make use of the [[#Data|data]] in an information system resource. Data access refers to a user's ability to access or retrieve data] stored within a data base or other repository. Users who have data access can store, retrieve, move or manipulate stored  data, which can be stored on a wide range of hard drives and external [[#Device|device]]s<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef45"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
''''''Food Security: '''Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life[ <nowiki> [73]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts, Farming, Agrifood.''
+
'''Data accountability: '''Accountability for data and its use<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Food supply chains: '''The processes and participating organisations through which food reaches the consumer from the farm of origin, it includes farmers, processors, distributors, retailers and consumers [ <nowiki>[74]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
<span id="DataAnalytics">'''Data Analytics: '''</span>Data Analytics comprises the needed operations needed to be performed so as to extract valuable information out of [[#Data|data]], including discovery, interpretation and modelling. It makes full use of mathematical/statistical algorithms combined with performance and programming techniques. Data Analytics is often tied to Big Data. In this respect, IoT is a key enabler for Data Analytics, as IoT [[#device|device]]s produce huge amounts of information that can susceptible to be used to generate models, studying patterns, feed intelligent decision systems and more, etc.<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef46"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef47"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Abstraction Layer||Abstraction Layer]], [[#Data|data]], [[#Analytics|Analytics]].''</small>
  
'''Food Traceability: '''Ability to track any food, feed, food-producing animal or substance that will be used for consumption, through all stages of production, processing and distribution [ <nowiki>[75]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts, Agrifood.''
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'''Data authentication: '''A process used to verify data integrity<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef317"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Framework: '''In general, a framework is a real or conceptual structure intended to serve as a support or guide for the building of something that expands the structure into something useful [ <nowiki>[76]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Abstraction Layer.''
+
'''Data granularity: '''Degree of precision of data<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef318"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''FTC: '''The Federal Trade Commission is an independent agency of the United States of America that has jurisdiction to enhance consumer welfare and protect competition in broad sectors of the economy[ <nowiki> [77]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Data governance: '''The exercise of decision-making and authority for data-related matters. The organizational bodies, rules, decision rights, and accountabilities of people and information systems as they perform information-related processes <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef288"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Data|Data]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Functional Ink: '''Functional printing means the additive printing of electronic components and circuits on a carrier material such as paper or foil [ <nowiki>[178]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Physical Layer.''
+
'''Data governance framework: '''The process of building a model for managing enterprise data. The framework or system sets the guidelines and rules of engagement for business and management activities, especially those that deal with or result in the creation and manipulation of data <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef289"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Data|Data]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
 +
'''Data integrity: '''The property that the data has not been altered or destroyed in an unauthorized manner.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
 +
'''Data minimization: '''The minimum necessary to collect, use, access, or disclose of data to avoid data breach and protect data for appropriate use.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''G'''
+
'''Data ownership: '''Under EU law, personal [[#Data|data]] can only be gathered legally under strict conditions and, for a legitimate purpose. Furthermore, persons or organisations that collect and manage your personal information must protect it from misuse and must respect certain rights of the data owners which are guaranteed by EU law<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef48"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Governance: ''''Governance' refers to the rules, processes and behaviour that affect the way in which powers are exercised, particularly in regard to openness, participation, accountability, effectiveness and coherence. IoT governance refers to the development and application by Governments, the private sector and civil society of shared principles, norms, rules, decision-making procedures, and programmes that shape the evolution and use of the Internet of Things in a direction that addresses policy concerns and ensures that the maximum benefits are reaped [ <nowiki>[78]</nowiki>][ .] Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Data privacy:'''Rights and obligation of individuals and organizations with respect to collection, use, retention, disclosure, and disposal of personal information<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef319"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
 +
'''Data providers: '''These are companies and organisations that provide free and/ or paid data sources. It can include social networks, public administrations or private businesses that provide access to some of their own data. These players do not necessarily send their data; they can simply make them available through APIs <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef313"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
 +
'''Data protection: '''Under EU law, personal [[#Data|data]] can only be gathered legally under strict conditions, for a legitimate purpose. Furthermore, persons or organisations which collect and manage your personal information must protect it from misuse and must respect certain rights of the data owners which are guaranteed by EU law <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef49"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''H'''
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'''Data security: '''Data security refers to the protection of information by using appropriate technical measures that shall be taken against unauthorised or unlawful access or processing, and against accidental loss, destruction, or damage<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef50"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
H2M''': '''See Human-to-Machine communication.
+
'''Data-Driven farming: '''The use of Big [[#Data|Data]] and contextual analysis to support decision making with the aim of reaching increasing productivity and profitability through precision agriculture.<small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]], [[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]], [[#Physical layer|Physical layer]], [[#Processing layer|Processing layer]].''</small>
  
'''High Performance Computing (HPC): '''HPC refers to the use of aggregated computing power for handling computation- and data-intensive tasks [ <nowiki>[79]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts, Processing Layer.''
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'''Decision (in SDL): '''An action within a transition which asks a question to which the answer can be obtained at that instant and, based on the answer selects one of the outgoing transitions from the decision to continue interpretation.<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef296"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
HMI''': '''See Human-Machine Interfaces.
+
'''Decision Support System (DSS): '''A computer-based information system that supports business or organizational decision-making activities. DSSs serve the management, operations, and planning levels of an organization (usually mid- or/and upper management) and help people make decisions about problems that may be rapidly changing and not easily specified in advance, i.e. unstructured and semi-structured decision problems. Decision support systems can be either fully computerized, human-powered or a combination of both. <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef51"/>.<br/><small>Keywords:  ''[[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]].''</small>
  
'''Holistic innovation: '''Europe strongly relies on innovation to compete globally and to make human activities more sustainable and our society more inclusive. It is not about technology as such but about a better life for all of us. To achieve that, industry and technology have to think in a more holistic way to conceive radically novel products, services and processes that are also putting the human at the centre.  Despite this imperative to work across boundaries and silos, Europe is still addressing innovation without fully engaging the creative forces that lie at the crossover of the arts – and, more generally, culture - science, and technology. In technology, Europe has historically focused its attention on R&D and standardization in technology. This led to initial successes e.g. in mobile telephony (Nokia and the GSM standard). Today, however, focusing only on technology is trapping us in incremental innovation.  In a situation of saturated and over-engineered European economies, change is considered as being risky and innovation often remains bound to an already existing logic.''' '''Holistic innovation happens when one overcomes stereotypes on the technology and culture divide that are an impediment to engaging in cross-border R&I and to unleashing creative forces [ <nowiki>[80]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[81]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts, Silos, Cross-Border.''
+
'''Deep learning: '''Deep learning mimics human neural pathways to analyse unstructured [[#Data|data]], providing multiple outputs/decisions through layered abstraction and pattern recognition <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef52"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''Abstraction Layer, [[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]], [[#Processing layer|Processing layer]]''</small>
  
HPC''': '''See High Performance Computing.
+
'''DEI: '''See [[#DEI|Digitising European]].
  
'''Human-centred IoT: '''It is commonly recognised that IoT has the potential to drastically improve our personal lives, our work places and our industrial / manufacturing efficiencies and capabilities. There is, however, a concern that IoT may lead to alienation because of objects capable of ‘talking’ to one other and to lose sight of human preferences. One of the main challenges for the implementation of IoT is to develop a human-centred IoT, an ecosystem where citizens aren’t forced to compliance and data share data while losing sight of their agency capacity for agency, but can instead trust that the IoT systems around them operate according to understood principles and guarantees for their integrity, privacy and security whilst allowing room for fantasy and appropriation. A human- centred IoT would imply an environment where IoT will empower people and not transform them into hostages of technology. Always being connected to the things around us has the potential to lead to more surveillance or more profiling by public authorities and private entities. More generally, without appropriate legal, technical and organisational safeguards, the IoT may facilitate the emergence of a de-humanised world, where machines enforce rules stringently, reduce humans’ freedom, and room for fantasy, and contact among them by make steps to controlling their behaviour.''' '''Director-General Roberto Viola also recently expressed this position: "The Next Generation Internet must be built for the humans respecting our European values" [ <nowiki>[82]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts, Human, Empower, Trust.''
+
'''Demand-driven farming: '''A [[#Farming|farming]] operation that is driven by the demand that the farm experiences (or foresees) from successive stages in the supply chain (food processors, businesses, consumers). Demand-driven [[#farming|farming]] is facilitated by the combination of technologies such as IoT or (predictive) Data Analytics.<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef16"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Processors|Processors]][[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]], [[#Farming|Farming]].''</small>
  
'''Human-centred production: '''Human-centred production is an innovative technology that can efficiently utilize human and material resources in order to secure production locations [ <nowiki>[83]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Application Layer.''
+
<span id="Device">'''Device: '''</span>Mechanical, electrical, or electronic contrivance with a specific purpose.<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef177"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]],[[#physical layer|physical layer]].''</small>
  
'''Human-Machine interface (HMI): '''The user interface of a mechanical system, a vehicle or an industrial installation [ <nowiki>[84]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Application Layer.''
+
'''Device management: '''Device management refers to the process of monitoring the implementation, operation and maintenance of physical or virtual devices. IoT device management implies a set of operations including provisioning and [[#Authentication|Authentication]], configuration and control, monitoring and diagnosis, software updates and maintenance<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef53"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]], [[#Security|Security]].''</small>
  
'''Human-to-Machine (H2M) communication: '''H2M communication is an important development within IoT for applications like remote health monitoring and activity tracking. In vivo or in vitro devices (implantable, swallow able or wearable) collect sensor data and use a wireless interface for transmitting the data. The recipient could be the health care system (physician, nurse, etc.). See also Machine-to-Human (M2H) communication. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Digital: '''Digital describes electronic technology that generates, stores, and processes [[#Data|data]] in terms of two states: positive and non-positive <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef54"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Processing layer|Processing layer]].''</small>
  
'''Hybridity: '''Hybrid arts is a contemporary art movement in which artists work with frontier areas of science and emerging technologies. Artists work with fields such as biology, robotics, physical sciences, experimental interface technologies (such as speech, gesture, and face recognition), artificial intelligence, information visualization, and many others. They address the research in many ways such as undertaking new research agendas, visualizing results in new ways, or critiquing the social implications of the research. A ‘hybrid creative’ is a transdisciplinary practitioner owning specific technical skills that may enable one to expertly and fluently navigate the specifics of the fields or ICT as well as the arts. Hybridity of competences of practitioners allows a hybrid creative to simultaneously or alternately approach a circumstance in a problem-solving mode, design thinking, and/or in a critical approach mode, artistic thinking. [ <nowiki>[85]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[19]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts, STARTS, Innovation, Research.''
+
'''Digital assistants: '''Applications that perform digital tasks for the user using speech recognition and natural language processing, e.g. Siri, Alexis.<small>Keywords: ''[[#Service layer|Service layer]], [[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]],'' ''[[#Processing layer|Processing layer]].''</small>
  
'''Hyper-connected Society: '''A society where anyone and anything is connected regardless of time and place. All humans and physical objects do (or have the possibility to) communicate with each other through a communication network [ <nowiki>[86]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Digital Automation: '''See [[#SM|Smart Manufacturing]].
  
'''Hyperconnectivity: '''Hyperconnectivity means that anyone or anything is connected anytime and anywhere. All humans and physical objects should (or have the possibility to) communicate with each other through a communication network [ <nowiki>[86]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Digital connection: ''' An association of digital circuits, digital switches and other functional units providing means for the transfer of digitally encoded information signals between two terminal points.<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef295"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
 +
'''Digital economy: '''The sum of all economic activity that relies upon or produces internet-enabled technologies like e-commerce, [[#Cloud|cloud]] computing, artificial intelligence and the Internet of things <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef55"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Collaboration and Process Layer|Collaboration and Process Layer]].''</small>
  
 +
'''Digital Industrial Platforms: '''A Digital Industrial Platform integrates ([[#Data|data]] from) various functions implemented by different technologies via clearly specified interfaces and makes data available for use by applications. Digital Industrial Platforms bring together different technologies, applications and services. They open up data from e.g. the machines, products and operators on a shop floor, make it accessible to e.g. monitoring and control applications, may provide open interfaces that allow third-parties to develop applications on top, and connect different stakeholders, such as users and application developers <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef56"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: '[[#Abstractionlayer|Abstraction Layer]]'</small>
  
'''I'''
+
'''Digital innovation: '''Digital innovation is the application of new technologies to existing business problems or practices. The unique properties of digital technology enable new types of [[#Innovation|innovation]] processes that are distinctly different from the analogue innovation processes of the Industrial Era <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef57"/>. <br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''ICT Art Connect: '''ICT Art Connect is the name of a study of the European Commission that revealed new evidence for the integration of the Arts as an essential and fruitful component within research and innovation in ICT. ARTSHARE, along with imec, the coordinating organism of the Flemish Government for ICT research, carried out the study ICT ART CONNECT: Activities Linking ICT and Art: Past Experience - Future Activities, and created a map of institutions and individuals engaged in artistic practices within ICT research projects in Europe and worldwide.''' '''Because of the study, the European Commission launched the STARTS programme: Innovation at the nexus of Science, Technology and the Arts. ICT Art Connect concept is no longer used in the European context and has been replaced by STARTS[ <nowiki> [19]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts, STARTS, Innovation.''
+
'''Digital Manufacturing: '''See [[#SM|Smart Manufacturing]]
  
'''Independent living: '''Independent living is the daily demonstration of human rights-based disability policies. Independent living is possible through the combination of various environmental and individual factors that allow disabled people to have control over their own lives. This includes the opportunity to make real choices and decisions regarding where to live, with whom to live and how to live. Services must be available, accessible to all and provided on the basis of equal opportunity, free and informed consent, and allowing disabled people flexibility in their daily lives. Independent living requires the built environment, transport and information to be accessible as well as the availability of technical aids, access to personal assistance and/or community-based services. It is necessary to point out that independent living is for all disabled persons, regardless of gender, age and the level of their support needs [ <nowiki>[87]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Digital Platforms: '''Digital platforms are the base upon which an increasing number of connection-based activities – marketplace, social, and political - are being organized. If the Industrial [[#Revolution|revolution]] was organized around the factory, today’s changes are organized around platforms and algorithms applied to enormous [[#Data|data]]bases running in the [[#Cloud|Cloud]] <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef58"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT): '''The IIoT is a subset of the IoT, where edge devices, processing units and networks interact with their environments to generate data to improve processes. It also, and describes the IoT when used across various several types of industrial sectors, (manufacturing, logistics, energy, etc.)[ <nowiki> [88]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[89]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Digital Rights Management: '''Digital rights management (DRM) is access-control technology used by manufacturers, publishers, and copyright holders to limit the use of digital devices or information. It describes the technology that prevents unauthorized distribution and use of content, media, or [[#Device|device]]<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef59"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Industry 4.0: '''Industry 4.0 is the naming provided to the current automation trend for manufacturing in which cyber-physical systems, IoT and Cloud computing combine together. It is also referred to as smart manufacturing. It is the next expected industrial revolution, preceded by the mechanization and steam power (1st revolution), the electrical mass production assembly line (2nd revolution) and computer automation (3rd revolution). In this complex new process, cyber-physical systems monitor real processes, creating a virtual copy of the real world and making decentralized decisions. IoT is used to permit communicate these cyber-physical systems to communicate with other systems and humans, in a way that they can jointly collaborate in real- time. All relevant data is centralized and exploited in cloud computing services, optimizing the maintenance and decision taking procedures[ <nowiki> [90]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[91]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts, Industry, Revolution.''
+
'''Digital service provider (DSP): '''Digital service providers (DSPs) are online marketplaces (which allow businesses to set up shops on the marketplace in order to make their products and services available online), [[#Cloud|Cloud]] computing services, and search engines.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Information technology (IT): '''IT is the application of computers to store, operate, communicate, gather and manipulate information, in the business context. It is often regarded as a branch of Information and Control Technologies (ICT). It is often used as a synonym for computer networks, although it covers a wider spectrum of technologies, such as television and cellular communications, among others, including IoT and wireless sensor devices, and others.''' '''Alternatively, a set of tools, processes, and methodologies and associated equipment employed to collect, process and present information[ <nowiki> [92]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts, ICT.''
+
<span id="DSM">'''Digital Single Market:</span> '''A Digital Single Market is one in which the free movement of persons, services and capital is ensured and where the individuals and businesses can seamlessly access and exercise online activities under conditions of fair competition, and a high level of consumer and personal [[#Data|data]] protection, irrespective of their nationality or place of residence <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef60"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Infrastructure: '''Infrastructure is the foundation or framework that supports a system or organization [ <nowiki>[93]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Abstraction Layer.''
+
'''Digital Twins: '''Digital twins are virtual representations of material assets. For the IoT, digital twins have never been trendier, as IoT vendors are using increasingly more advanced technology for their implementation, not least with an add-on marketing effect. The digital twin, as a virtual representation of the IoT’s physical object or system across its lifecycle, using real-time data to enable understanding, learning and reasoning, is a one element connecting the IoT and AI. The digital twin represents the virtual replica of the IoT physical [[#Device|device]] by acting like the real thing, which helps in detecting possible issues, testing new settings, simulating all kinds of scenarios, analysing different operational and behavioural scenarios and simulating various situations in a virtual or digital environment, while knowing that what is performed with that digital twin could also happen when it is done by the ‘real’ physical “thing”. Digital twins as part of IoT technologies and applications are being expanded to more applications, use cases and industries, as well as combined with more technologies, such as speech capabilities, AR for an immersive experience and AI capabilities, enabling us to look inside the digital twin by removing the need to go and check the ‘real’ thing.<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef247"/>. <br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#AI|AI]],[[#IoT|IoT]],[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]]''</small>
  
''''''Innovation: '''The traditional definition of innovation is the launch of a new product or version new species of an already known product, application of new methods of production or sales of a product (not yet proven in the industry), opening of a new market (the market for which a branch of the industry was not yet represented), acquiring of new sources of supply of raw material or semi-finished goods, or a new industry structure such as the creation or destruction of a monopoly position. A more up-to-date definition can refer to the successful implementation (as evidenced by the market introduction) of an idea that provides a novel solution to a problem [ <nowiki>[94]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
<span id="DEI">'''Digitising European Industry (DEI):</span> '''The DEI Strategy was launched in April 2016 by the European Commission as an articulated set of measures to help European [[#Industry|industry]], SMEs, researchers and public authorities make the most of digital technologies such as IoT<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef61"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]], [[#Industry|Industry]], [[#Policy|Policy]].''</small>
  
'''Innovation Ecosystems: '''While a concrete definition has not been decided, we propose that an innovation ecosystem refers to the interdependent agencies and agents (e.g. universities, corporates, start-ups, public bodies) that drive the innovation process from conception to market which involving cooperation and competition. [ <nowiki>[95]</nowiki>]'''. '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Directive on security of network and information systems (NIS Directive): '''The NIS Directive is the first piece of EU-wide legislation on Cybersecurity. It provides legal measures to boost the overall level of cybersecurity in the EU. The NIS Directive was adopted by the European Parliament in July 2016 and entered into force in August 2016. Member States must transpose the Directive into their national laws by May 2018 and identify operators of essential services by November 2018.<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef314"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Legislation|Legislation]],[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Internet of Autonomous Things (IoAT): '''IoAT refers to bring devices (things), including artificial intelligence and machine learning, being brought into the physical environment as autonomous entities, moving and interacting with humans and other devices without human intervention. IoAT includes topics like mastering varied surroundings, device identification, dynamic discoverability, context- based cognitive network integration, and seamless platform integration. Examples of IoAT applications are autonomous vehicles and self-navigating drones. Sometimes the expression Autonomous Internet of Things (A-IoT) is used for IoAT [ <nowiki>[88]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[96]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Domain-specific indicators: '''Indicators designed for, and applying to, a single domain used to measure the performance and impacts of one specific LSP<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef287"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Internet of Buildings (IoB): '''An application domain of IoT, where information from multiple intelligent building management systems are gathered and integrated by IoB, for optimising the behaviour of individual buildings as part of a larger information system. The edge devices are important components for value creation through data collection, exchange and processing [ <nowiki>[88]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''DSM: '''See [[#DSM|Digital Single Market]]
  
'''Internet of Energy (IoE): '''A dynamic energy network infrastructure including energy cloud storage based on standard and interoperable communication protocols that interconnect the energy network with the Internet allowing units of energy (locally generated, stored, and forwarded) to be dispatched bidirectionally when and where it is needed. The related information/data and financial transactions follows the energy flows thus implementing the necessary information exchange together with the energy and financial transfers. Internet of Energy refers to the current trend among followed by energy producers and distribution grid operators of upgrading and automating electricity infrastructures to adapt the to the new decentralized and customer- centred model pushed by renewable energies, the new role of prosumers and the adoption of novel communication and data processing technologies. IoT plays a key role on this new Internet of Energy concept. IoT devices will be put in place on all value chain parts, including monitoring devices for energy plants (allowing optimal operation and maintenance for the generation), automating and controlling devices on the grid (smartening the distribution grid) and real-time monitoring on customer side (enabling real-time bi-directional communication with users) [ <nowiki>[9</nowiki>7]] <nowiki>[223] [224]</nowiki>. Keywords: ''Application Layer, Energy.''
 
  
'''Internet of Health (IoH): '''An IoT application domain within the healthcare sector. The IoH concept refers to a large-scale system for reliable communication, information exchange and interaction possibilities facilitating more efficient, affordable and better-quality healthcare, together with enhanced patient experience and engagement. For instance, through improved or new remote health- monitoring and activity- tracking methods; diagnostics, treatment and medication methods; and patient flow, record-keep journaling and administrative methods. New communication, health and welfare technologies provide new services regardless of geographic localisation. A careful balance between data access and sharing of information are required to ensure security and privacy.[ <nowiki> [16]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[98]</nowiki>]'''. '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
<span id="E">
 +
'''E'''
 +
</span>
 +
----
  
''''''Internet of Mobile Things (IoMT): '''This is an application domain where mobile devices (things) are included in the IoT network/system. These mobile devices are characterized by increasing diversity and number, which challenge device identification, dynamic discoverability, context based cognitive network integration, and seamless platform integration. Some general examples of mobile devices today are sensors/actuators embedded in smartphones, smartwatches and cameras. To avoid misunderstandings, we mention that the abbreviation IoMT is also used for Internet of Medical Things [ <nowiki>[88]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[99]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
<span id="EC">'''Edge computing:'''Edge computing is a way to optimize [[#Cloud|Cloud]] computing systems by using edge device computational capabilities to run analytic/knowledge generation functions and, thus, reducing the processes performed on the Cloud. Locating this [[#Data|data]] processing near the data sources also allows a reduction of the bandwidth as only relevant aggregated information is transferred. The application of edge computing to IoT might be the solution to the current concern about not having enough resources at Cloud level to process the overall data being reported by IoT [[#Device|devices]]. Nevertheless, there are some barriers to overcome to reach a truly functional IoT edge computing network, such as the potential unavailability of devices due to its often used wireless link or the scheduling/coordination problems that may arise when deploying it at large scale<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef62"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#network communication layer|network communication layer]], [[#Wireless|Wireless]].''</small>
  
'''Internet of Robotic Things (IoRT): '''A concept that incorporate robotics aspects into the IoT landscape to provide advanced robotic capabilities, where intelligent devices (robotic things) are able to monitor events, collect sensor data from different sources, and use distributed intelligence to determine best solutions before effectuating an action on objects in the physical world. See also Robotic things [ <nowiki>[88]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[100]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[101]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Edge device/node: '''Hardware or physical component. In IoT, usually the hardware acting a bridge between sensors and internet. It is also capable of covering computing capabilities not supported by sensors<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Internet of Things (IoT): '''IoT is “A dynamic global network infrastructure with self-configuring capabilities based on standard and interoperable communication protocols where physical and virtual “things” have identities, physical attributes, and virtual personalities and use intelligent interfaces, and are seamlessly integrated into the information network”. ITU-T has formulated the following definition: “Internet of things (IoT): A global infrastructure for the information society, enabling advanced services by interconnecting (physical and virtual) things based on existing and evolving interoperable information and communication technologies.''' '''''Note 1'':  Through the exploitation of identification, data capture, processing and communication capabilities, the IoT makes full use of things to offer services to all kinds of applications, whilst ensuring that security and privacy requirements are fulfilled. ''' '''''Note 2'': From a broader perspective, the IoT can be perceived as a vision with technological and societal implications [ <nowiki>[102]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[103]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts, Things, Applications, Cloud.''
+
'''Electronic commerce (e-commerce): '''Electronic commerce (e-commerce) refers to business transactions of goods and services, or the transmitting of funds or data, over internet. These transactions occur either as B2B, B2C/C2B, or C2C.<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef305"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Internet of Vehicles (IoV): '''The IoV concept refers to connected vehicles in a large-scale distributed system for reliable dynamic communication and information exchange facilitating smart mobility and transport, through traffic management, information services, environmental protection, road safety, assisted/autonomous driving, etc. The communication network includes both mobile internet communication, inter-vehicle/infrastructure communication, and intra-vehicle communication, as well as storage, artificial intelligence, learning, sensing, and decision-making capabilities [ <nowiki>[88]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[100]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[101]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Electronic labelling (e-labelling): '''e-labelling is an alternative for manufacturers for indicating compliance information. This can be done electronically through embedding it in the software of [[#Device|devices]] with a built-in screen, connection to a screen, or through machine readable-codes (e.g. QR-codes). ECSO WG1 is working on labelling together with standardisation, certification, and supply chain management, developing a roadmap for the
 +
development of security standards and certification. For Cybersecurity e-labelling, there is a trade-off between the simplicity required for the understanding by a non-expert consumer, and the information presented in the cybersecurity label<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef266"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]],[[#Security|Security]].''</small>
  
'''Interoperability: '''Interoperability is a characteristic of a product or system, whose interfaces are perfectly able, to work with other products or systems, at present or future, in either implementation or access, without any restrictions [ <nowiki>[104]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Embedded systems: '''Embedded systems are dedicated mini-computers serving as parts of a larger mechanical, electrical or communications system. They often suffer from real-time and/or computing capabilities constraints. These systems include hardware and mechanical parts and are commonly used as monitoring and control [[#Device|devices]] for a plethora of applications. IoT disrupted the way embedded systems were traditionally conceived as they require very strict miniaturization, communication and processing capabilities. This disruption touches upon not just hardware design for embedded systems, but also software programming models and Operating System design <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef63"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef64"/>. <br/>
 +
<small>Keywords: ''[[#Physical layer|Physical layer]].''</small>
  
IoB''': '''See Internet of Buildings.
+
'''Enabling network: '''The organization of communication between various [[#Device|devices]] in applications such as smart grids, smart meters, smart houses, smart healthcare systems, smart industries, etc.<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef65"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: '[[#Network communication layer|Network communication layer]]'</small>
  
IoE''': '''See Internet of Energy.
+
'''End-nodes: '''The bottom layer in an IoT Platform or architecture. Physical components capable of collecting data, sensing and acting.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
IoH: See Internet of Health.
+
'''End-to-end security: '''''(i)'' Safeguarding information in a secure telecommunication system by cryptographic or protected distribution system means from point of origin to point of destination. ''(ii)'' Safeguarding information in an information system from point of origin to point of destination<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef66"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]], [[#Security|Security].''</small>
  
IoRT: See Internet of Robotic Things.
+
'''End-user: ''' A human being, organization, or telecommunications system that accesses the network in order to communicate via the services provided by the network.<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef298"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]],[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''[ IoT''']''': '''See Internet of Things.
+
'''Energy crops: '''These are crops which are grown for energy, rather than for food or fibre. They include oilseeds crops (e.g. oilseed rape, soya, sunflower), cereals (e.g. wheat, barley, maize, rye), sugar beet, sugarcane and perennial crops (e.g. miscanthus, short rotation coppice, eucalyptus) <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef338"/>.  
  
'''IoT Applications: '''Applications that run in an IoT system.
+
'''Enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB): '''Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB) is one of three sets of use cases defined by 3GPP for 5G, (data-driven use cases requiring high data rates across a wide coverage area). For other sets of use cases, see uRLLC and mMTC.<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef267"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Wireless|Wireless]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''IoT Data: '''Data is the real value offered by IoT. Most business models for IoT are based on how to exploit and extract value out of the data being posted by deployed IoT devices in the field. In this data-driven scenario, it is critical to conduct measurements properly. The phenomenon/device monitored should be carefully selected to assure its relevance. Moreover, the accuracy of the measurement should also be guaranteed so as to avoid misleading information and, therefore, decisions. These decisions should drive data processing and analytics. A business strategy for IoT should consider how to exploit data through analysis [ <nowiki>[105]</nowiki>][ <nowiki> [106]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Storage Layer, Data, Analytics.''
+
'''Ethics: '''Ethics refers to universally- or socially-accepted norms and behaviours. Ethics are concerned with what is good for the individual and society and the associated behaviours and actions<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef67"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]]''</small>
  
'''IoT Devices: '''IoT devices range from large, industrial sensing devices to tiny implants or from high-demanding video-surveillance devices to low-rate pulse sensors. They all have in common that they are deployed to serve a business/industry/particular need and are able to remotely report data. In terms of communication capabilities, they can use short-range radio interfaces (usually being grouped towards a high-end device acting as gateway to the Internet), long-range radio interfaces (such as LPWAN, cellular, etc.) or even wired communication links. They can also be classified as just data-posting devices (unicast communication link) or actuators (accepting external commands and, thus, using bidirectional communication links) [ <nowiki>[105]</nowiki>][ <nowiki> [106]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Physical Layer, Things, Hardware.''
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'''European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD):'''This fund was created in September 2005 and came into operation at the beginning of 2007. It replaced the guarantee section of the European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund. It provides funding for direct payment to farmers, for the management of the agricultural markets and for a number of other purposes such as veterinary and plant health measures, food programmes and information activities <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef338"/>.
  
'''IoT Ecosystem: '''Solutions comprising large heterogeneous systems of systems, solving challenges across application verticals. In these ecosystems, IoT acts as an essential driver for optimization, innovation, competitiveness and business based on enabling technologies and collaboration among various stakeholders. It increases the value creation through exchange of information between multiple domains while maintaining privacy and security. Complementary architecture for seamless IoT integration is important to ensure interoperability. Open technologies and platforms are preferable[ <nowiki> [16]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[88]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
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'''European Cyber Security Organisation (ECSO):'''ECSO is the industry-led contractual counterpart to the European Commission (EC) for the implementation of the Cyber Security contractual Public-Private Partnership (cPPP). ECSO members include a wide variety of stakeholders and is instrumental in providing support to the EC for a new certification scheme. The main objective is to support all types of initiatives and projects that aim to develop, promote, encourage European cyber security. Particularly aims to foster and protect from cyber threats the growth of the European Digital Single Market (DSM)<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef268"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]]''</small>
  
'''IoT European Large-Scale Pilots (IoT-LSPs): '''The IoT European Large-Scale Pilots Programme in Horizon 2020's work programme 2016-2017, includes IoT-LSP projects addressing the IoT applications based on European relevance, technology readiness and socio-economic interest in Europe. (ACTIVAGE, MONICA, IoF2020, AUTOPILOT, SYNCHRONICITY, U4IoT, and CREATE-IoT). The IoT-LSPs involve stakeholders from supply side to demand side, and contain all the technological and innovation elements and tasks related to the use, application and deployment, as well as development of technology, testing and integration activities. The pilot projects are also accompanied by coordination and support actions to ensure smooth and efficient cooperation and management of the various activities of the Focus Area (FA) as well as to support cross- fertilisation of the various pilot projects for technological and validation issues of common interest across the various use cases. The European Large-Scale Pilots Programme website is available <nowiki>https://european-iot-pilots.eu/.</nowiki> See also Large-Scale Pilot (LSP) [ <nowiki>[107]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[108]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''European Network for Rural Development (ENRD):'''The European Network for Rural Development was established in 2008 by the European Commission to help member states implement their Rural Development programmes in an efficient manner. The network provides a forum for connecting rural Europe. It also serves as a platform for sharing ideas and experiences as to how Rural Development programmes work in practice and how they can be improved. Its main stakeholders include national rural networks, member state authorities, local action groups and other Rural Development organisations having an EU perspective. The network shares information with stakeholders in a variety of ways, including through its publications and its participation in events and fairs across Europe.<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef338"/>
  
'''IoT European Platforms Initiative (IoT-EPI): '''A European initiative for IoT platform development, interoperability and information-sharing, founded by the EU to build a vibrant and sustainable IoT ecosystem in Europe. Seven leading research and innovation projects (AGILE, bIoTope, BIG IoT, Inter-IoT, symbIoTe, TagItSmart!, VICINITY) supported by two coordination and support action projects Be-IoT and UNIFY-IoT make their technology accessible to third parties. In addition, a strong support and funding structure in the form of open calls and workshops fosters further collaboration. Their website is available on <nowiki>http://iot-epi.eu/.</nowiki> See also IoT European Platforms Initiative (IoT-EPI)[ <nowiki> [109]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''European Platforms Initiative (EPI):''' See [[#EP|IoT European Platforms Initiative]].
  
'''IoT Operating Systems: '''As IoT hardware providers peaked over the past few years, so did IoT Operating Systems (OS) seeing, as they are sometimes tied to a particular platform. There are also some commonly used alternatives, being Linux-based OS being the most used alternative these nowadays. IoT OSs are often tied to particular device needs, t. Therefore, there is not a single approach but multiple options that can be considered depending on the application. Determining if real-time performance is needed, memory size, catching capabilities or CPU processing requirements, level of required security, hardware constraints, and shaping the communication/networking needs are decisive aspects to take into account when choosing the IoT OS [ <nowiki>[105]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[106]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Physical Layer, OS, Software, Real-Time.''
+
'''European Research Cluster on the Internet of Things (IERC):''' IERC is coordinating and building a broadly-based consensus on the ways to realise the Internet of Things vision in Europe. Their objectives are to identify IoT technology research challenges at the European level in the view of a global development. The IERC cluster brings together several members from through IoT projects within EU and aim to address the large potential for IoT-based capabilities in Europe and to coordinate the convergence of ongoing activities.<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef280"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]]''</small>
  
''''''IoT Platforms: '''IoT Platforms refer to online management tools for IoT devices, often combining multiple applications such as device management, security, data analytics and visualization tools. IoT platforms range from hardware vendor operated (tied to a particular IoT device), network operated (tied to a particular communication network provider) and system integrator operated (offering interoperability approaches) [ <nowiki>[105]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[106]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Service Layer, Platform, Cloud, Data.''
+
'''European Union Agency for Network and Information Security (ENISA):'''ENISA is a centre of expertise for cyber security in Europe (located in Greece), and is actively contributing to a high level of network and information security (NIS) within the Union. The agency works closely together with the Members States and private sector to deliver advice and solutions. and to raise the awareness of NIS.<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef269"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]]''</small>
  
'''IoT Policy: '''AIs a document that provides a comprehensive guide to help an organization promote the development of the IoT and/or deal with the complex issues related to that development [ <nowiki>[110]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Evolved 4G eNB (eLTE eNB):'''An eLTE eNB can support connectivity to the 4G evolved packet core (EPC) as well as the 5G next- generation core network (NGC or NGCN).
  
'''IoT Standardization: '''IoT standardization can be divided into four categories: Platform, Connectivity, Business Model and Killer Applications [ <nowiki>[111]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Evolved Node B (eNB or eNodeB):'''The part of the cell tower as defined by 4G LTE to be used within the base station that provides radio access to the user equipment (UE).
  
'''IoT Standards: '''Standard model to perform common IoT-backend tasks [ <nowiki>[111]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Application Layer.''
+
'''Experience Readiness Level: '''The Experience Readiness Level (ERL) measures the capability of IoT systems to trigger experiences, a measure that steps away from the modernist ideal of the «perfect object» and embraces the potential of a thriving, dynamic exchange between technology and art to empower the spectator and deepen his or her experience. The ERL is a complimentary approach to Technology Readiness Level (TRL), Market Readiness Level (MRL) and Production Readiness Level (PRL). Kevin Ashton in 1999 coined the term IoT, and understood it as an evolution of the Internet whereby "we empower computers with their own means of gathering information, so they can see, hear and smell the world for themselves, in all its random glory". Nowadays, we understand the power of the hyper-connected society is about empowering citizens, not computers. A shift of attention from labs and drawing boards to involving existing and new communities at an early stage of IoT development is fostered and advocated. If the goal is the adoption of IoT by masses in full confidence, it's important we stop thinking about IoT as objects and start thinking of IoT as triggers for better lives. The Experience Readiness Level (ERL) is a new notion that introduces the focus on 'better lives' and moves the attention from the production to the consumption of IoT<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef68"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef69"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''IoT Standards Landscape: '''Support of a large variety of applications departing from existing silos and the generation of healthy ecosystems [ <nowiki>[112]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Explainability: '''Enables human users to understand the decisions made by AI systems and the rationale behind them. This ability will make it easier to track down eventual failures and assess decisions’ strengths and weaknesses. Ultimately, this will increase the trust in the systems’ decisions. This ability will have to integrate with human-computer interface techniques which are able to track complex reasoning processes<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef232"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#AI|AI]], [[#IoT|IoT]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]]''</small>
  
'''IoT technology: '''It brings together two evolving technologies: wireless connectivity and smart sensors[ <nowiki> [113]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
 
  
'''IoT Trust: '''Trust management plays an important role in IoT for reliable data fusion and mining, qualified services with context-awareness, and enhanced user privacy and information security. It helps people overcome perceptions of uncertainty and risk and engages in user acceptance and consumption of IoT services and applications[ <nowiki> [114]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
<span id="F">
 +
'''F'''
 +
</span>
 +
----
  
IoV: See Internet of Vehicles.
+
'''Factories of the futures (FoF): '''The FoF is a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) initiative for helping EU manufacturing enterprises (in particular SMEs) to adapt global competitive pressures by developing the necessary key enabling technologies across a broad range of sectors.  It will help European industry to meet increasing global consumer demand for greener, more customised and higher quality products <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef270"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
IT: See Information Technology.
+
'''Fairness: '''Enables IoT systems which embed AI technologies to support or automate decision processes while adhering to the same fairness and compliance standards as humans <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef233"/>. <br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#AI|AI]],[[#IoT|IoT]],[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]]''</small>
  
 +
'''Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN): '''The farm accountancy data network provides data on the financial and economic aspects of various types of farming in the member states of the European Union. Each year a sample of farms is selected which is representative of commercial farms. These farms provide data on their costs of production, their revenues from sales and other aspects of their farming operations. The data enable the European Union to monitor the income situation of farmers and to examine the effects of the Common Agricultural Policy <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef338"/>.<br/>
  
 +
'''Farmer: '''In the context of the Common Agricultural Policy, a farmer is an individual (or group of individuals e.g. partnerships, companies, and other legal structures through which a business is conducted) whose holding is situated with the territory of the European Union and who exercises an agricultural activity <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef338"/>.
  
'''K'''
+
'''Farming: '''The activity or business of raising crops or livestock <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef70"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Key Enabling Technologies (KET): '''KETs are a group of six technologies that have a wide range of product applications such as developing low carbon energy technologies, improving energy and resource efficiency, and creating new medical products. They have huge potential to fuel economic growth and provide jobs [ <nowiki>[179]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Federation of platforms: '''An approach to enterprise architecture that allows interoperability and information-sharing between semi-autonomous business units <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef71"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Collaboration and Process Layer|Collaboration and Process Layer]].''</small>
  
'''Key Performance Indicator (KPI): '''A KPI is a high-level metric that measures the performance of a company, business unit, project, process or system that aligns with the organisational strategy or the desired outcomes of the process or system in question [ <nowiki>[115]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Fog computing: '''Fog computing refers to a mechanism similar to edge computing, but using one or more end [[#Device|devices]] acting as gateways/data-processing units performing substantial storage, control, configuration, measurement and management activities for a given number of associated end devices and, therefore, reducing the [[#Cloud|Cloud]] processing needs <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef72"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Network communication layer|Network communication layer]].''</small>
  
'''KPI: '''See Key Performance Indicator.
+
'''Food Safety: '''This term refers to the extent to which food is safe to eat. The term is sometimes confused with food security which refers to the extent to which food is available - i.e. whether it is physically available and can be bought at a price that people can afford <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef338"/>.
  
 +
'''Food Security: '''Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef73"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]], [[#Farming|Farming]], [[#Agrifood|Agrifood]].''</small>
  
 +
'''Food supply chains: '''The processes and participating organisations through which food reaches the consumer from the farm of origin, it includes farmers, processors, distributors, retailers and consumers <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef74"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Processors|Processors]],[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''L'''
+
'''Food Traceability: '''Ability to track any food, feed, food-producing animal or substance that will be used for consumption, through all stages of production, processing and distribution <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef75"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]], [[#Agrifood|Agrifood]].''</small>
  
'''Legislation: '''A law or set of laws suggested by a government and made official by a parliament [ <nowiki>[116]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''FROST: '''A Server implementation of the [[#OGC|OGC]]<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef347"/>
  
'''Liability: '''Product liability is the area of law in which manufacturers, distributors, suppliers, retailers, and others who make products available to the public are held responsible for the injuries those products cause [ <nowiki>[180]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''FTC: '''The Federal Trade Commission is an independent agency of the United States of America that has jurisdiction to enhance consumer welfare and protect competition in broad sectors of the economy <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef77"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
''''''Lifecycle Management: '''Activities related to the follow-up and supervision of the evolution of a system, product, service, project, or other human-made entity from conception through retirement [ <nowiki>[181]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Full automation: '''The driving mode specific performance by an automated driving system of all aspects the dynamic driving task under all roadway and environmental conditions that can be managed by a human driver <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef260"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Long-Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN): '''The wireless LoRaWAN technology for long-range radio, low power, and low data rate IoT applications are based on spread spectrum chipsets from Semtech Corporation, but promoted by the non-profit association LoRa Alliance. Typical characteristics are distances of up to 20 km, battery- powered end-nodes of up to 10 years’ lifetime, and data rates ranging from 0.3 kbps to 50 kbps in the 869 and 900 MHz ISM bands. Switching between LoRa chirp spread spectrum (CSS) and frequency-shift keying (FSK) modulation are facilitated. The network server hosts the system intelligence and complexity (e.g., duplicate packets elimination, acknowledgement scheduling, data rate adapting). All connections are bidirectional, support multicast operation, and forms a star of stars topology. To serve different applications, the end-nodes are classified in three different classes, which trade off communication latency versus power consumption. Class A is the most energy efficient, and is implemented in all end-nodes. Classes B and C are optional and must be class- A- compatible. A spreading factor (SF) is used to increase the network capacity. A higher SF gives longer communication range, but also implies decreased data rate and increased energy consumption. For frequent data sampling, LoRa systems use an SF as small as possible to limit the airtime, which requires end-nodes located closer to the gateways [ <nowiki>[117]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[118]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Network Communication Layer.''
+
'''Functional Ink: '''Functional printing means the additive printing of electronic components and circuits on a carrier material such as paper or foil <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef178"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Physical layer|Physical layer]].''</small>
  
'''LPWAN: '''LPWAN stands for Low Power Wide Area Network, and refers to the type of wireless network designed to allow long- range communications at low- bit rates, which is especially interesting for the vast great majority of IoT devices. It is also specifically designed for low- power devices, in contrast with other wireless wide- area networks such as cellular networks, requiring more expensive and power- demanding radio modules, as they allow high- throughput rates. LPWAN technologies can be used to create private networks or a service provided by a third party, eliminating, thus, the need for gateway deployments seeing, as IoT devices can connect directly connect to the network. LPWAN technologies have appeared in the recent past and, evolving into a reality nowadays. The most commonly LPWAN networks/technologies used in Europe, currently are SigFox and LoRa, although NB-IoT is also a promising alternative [ <nowiki>[119]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[117]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Network Communication Layer, Communications, Wireless, Long-range.''
 
  
'''LSP: '''See IoT Large Scale Pilot Program.
+
=== G-I ===
  
 +
<span id="G">
 +
'''G'''
 +
</span>
 +
----
  
 +
'''General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR): ''''The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is the Regulation (EU) 2016/679 to harmonize data privacy laws across Europe and ensure the protection of privacy regarding the processing and free movement of personal data. In particular, the individual's right to control their personal data and their right to protection of personal data. It applies to any organization, whether private or public, that processes personal data, and imposes the obligation to implement appropriate technical and organisational measures to ensure a level of security appropriate to the risk <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef306"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''M'''
+
'''Generic indicators: ''''Indicators referring to areas of performance or evaluations that are common to all KPIs and all products, services and projects <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef285"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
M2H''': '''See Machine-to-Human communication.
+
'''Google Next: ''''IoT ecosystem provided by google with different [[#Device|devices]]: thermostat, cameras, video doorbells, etc. Focused on smart homes. Everything managed and centralized with an special device called: Nest Hub<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef333"/><br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
M2M''': '''See Machine-to-Machine.
+
'''GOST: '''Go implementation of OGC SensorThings API [[#OGC|OGC]]. <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef346"/>
  
'''Machine Learning (ML): '''Machine learning is an application of artificial intelligence (AI) that gives systems the ability to automatically learn and improve from experience without being explicitly programmed. Machine learning focuses on the development of computer programs that can access data and use it learn for themselves[ <nowiki> [12</nowiki>0]] <nowiki>[225].</nowiki> Keywords: ''Collaboration and Process Layer.''
+
'''Governance: ''''Governance' refers to the rules, processes and behaviour that affect the way in which powers are exercised, particularly in regard to openness, participation, accountability, effectiveness and coherence. IoT governance refers to the development and application by Governments, the private sector and civil society of shared principles, norms, rules, decision-making procedures, and programmes that shape the evolution and use of the Internet of things in a direction that addresses [[#Policy|policy]] concerns and ensures that the maximum benefits are reaped<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef78"/><br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Machine-to-Human (M2H) communication: '''The concept of letting the machines interact with humans based on either voice or gestures is called machine-to-human interaction. See also Human-to-Machine communication [ <nowiki>[121]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Abstraction Layer.''
+
'''GPU: ''''Graphical Processing Unit. Mainly used for multimedia purposes: video, videogames, desktops acceleration, etc. Lately, used to support AI/ML high processing demands. It can be found in IoT Edge devices.<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef334"/><br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]],[[#ML|ML]],[[#AI|AI]].''</small>
  
'''Machine-to-Machine (M2M): '''Machine- to- machine communications refers to such communications involving just devices (without human intervention) and using any means of communication channels, including wireless. It constitutes a subset of use cases covered by the whole spectrum of IoT cases, as they also include devices triggered or operated by humans. M2M was built from the seed of current IoT and industry 4.0 technology, with networks of machines relaying information back to a central computing system in charge of analysing the information. Currently, those systems evolved into the current usage of M2M to allow systems of networks to transmitting data to personal appliances[ <nowiki> [122]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Network Communication Layer, Things, Communications.''
 
  
Manufacturing Digitisation''': '''See Smart Manufacturing.
+
<span id="H">
 +
'''H'''
 +
</span>
 +
----
  
'''Market: '''Markets for technology refer to “transactions for the use, diffusion and creation of knowledge and technology". They are places where the technology seller (supply side) meets the technology buyer (demand side). Markets for technology can be characterised along several dimensions, including (i) their purpose, which may be to circulate existing technologies (e.g IP marketplace), or to produce or co-produce new technologies (e.g. based on bilateral contracts); and (ii) the type of technology transactions. Technology transactions can take different forms, from pure licensing or sale of well-defined intellectual property, to complicated collaborative agreements that may include the development of the technology or its realization [ <nowiki>[182]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts''
+
'''H2M: '''See [[#H2M|Human-to-Machine communication]]
  
'''Market Adoption Readiness Levels (MARL): '''A new approach proposed (AIOTI WG2 Innovation Ecosystem community) for measuring the impact of early adopter models. This approach poses the increase of TRL as one out of four factors to achieving innovation instead of being the only one. This is a promising starting point for a holistic approach to digital transformation of the EU industry. Such an approach is mostly targeting consumer-centric and creative industries and needs substantial improvements and extensions to be applied to the manufacturing domain. So far, the four factors/levels in this approach are defined as follows: (i) Level of risk, (ii) Number of potential early adopters, (iii) Potential to yield data from early adoption, and (iv) The technology readiness [ <nowiki>[16]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''High automation: '''The driving mode specific performance by an automated driving system of all aspects the dynamic driving task, even if a human driver does not respond appropriately to a request to intervene.<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef259"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Mass customization: '''Mass customization is a production process that combines elements of mass production with those of bespoke tailoring. Products are adapted to meet a customer's individual needs so no two items are the same. It can also be defined as the production of personalized or tailored goods or services to meet consumers' diverse and changing needs at near mass production prices. Enabled by technologies such as computerization, internet, product modularization, and lean production, it portends the ultimate stage in market segmentation where every customer can have exactly what he or she wants[ <nowiki> [123]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[124]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts, Physical Layer.''
+
<span id="HPC">'''High Performance Computing (HPC):</span> '''HPC refers to the use of aggregated computing power for handling computation- and [[#Data|data]]-intensive tasks <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef79"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]], [[#Processing layer|Processing layer]].''</small>
  
'''Middleware: '''Middleware is a distributed software layer that sits above the network operating system and below the application layer and abstracts the heterogeneity of the underlying environment [ <nowiki>[183]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''HMI: '''See [[#HMI|Human-Machine Interfaces]]
  
'''MIMO: '''Multiple Input Multiple Output technology uses multiple antennae to make use of reflected signals to provide gains in channel robustness and throughput[ <nowiki> [125]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Network Communication Layer.''
+
'''Holistic innovation: '''Europe strongly relies on [[#Innovation|innovation]] to compete globally and to make human activities more sustainable and our society more inclusive. It is not about technology as such but about a better life for all of us. To achieve that, [[#Industry|industry]] and technology have to think in a more holistic way to conceive radically novel products, services and processes that are also putting the human at the centre.  Despite this imperative to work across boundaries and [[#Silos|silos]], Europe is still addressing innovation without fully engaging the creative forces that lie at the crossover of the arts – and, more generally, culture - science, and technology. In technology, Europe has historically focused its attention on R&D and standardization in technology. This led to initial successes e.g. in mobile telephony (Nokia and the GSM standard). Today, however, focusing only on technology is trapping us in incremental innovation.  In a situation of saturated and over-engineered European economies, change is considered as being risky and innovation often remains bound to an already existing logic.''' '''Holistic innovation happens when one overcomes stereotypes on the technology and culture divide that are an impediment to engaging in Cross-Border R&I and to unleashing creative forces <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef80"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef81"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
ML''': '''See Machine Learning.
+
'''Home Automation: '''Home automation or domotics is building automation for a home. A home automation system will control lighting, climate, entertainment systems, and appliances. It may also include home security such as access control and alarm systems. When connected with the Internet, home [[#Device|devices]] are an important constituent of the Internet of Things <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef229"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]],[[#IoT|IoT]]''</small>
  
'''Mobile edge computing: '''A concept that enables information technology service environments and cloud computing capabilities at the edge of the radio access networks/cellular networks. Implementing the relevant applications nearby or at the base stations and thereby performing the processing tasks closer to the users, enables fast and flexible deployment of new context-based applications and services for the users. At the same time, it will relieve traffic in the telecommunications network. MEC is a network infrastructure component for blockchain since the replication of blocks via devices can be implemented at the edge and enables IoT applications to deliver real-time context-based mobile moments to the users. The technical standards are being developed by ETSI. See also Edge computing [ <nowiki>[126]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[16]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Network Communication Layer.''
+
'''HPC: '''See [[#HPC|High Performance Computing]].
  
 +
'''Human-centred IoT: '''It is commonly recognised that IoT has the potential to drastically improve our personal lives, our work places and our industrial / manufacturing efficiencies and capabilities. There is, however, a concern that IoT may lead to alienation because of objects capable of ‘talking’ to one other and to lose sight of humanpreferences. One of the main challenges for the implementation of IoT is to develop a Human-centred IoT, an ecosystem where citizens aren’t forced to compliance and [[#Data|data]] share data while losing sight of their agency capacity for agency, but can instead [[#Trust|trust]] that the IoT systems around them operate according to understood principles and guarantees for their integrity, privacy and security whilst allowing room for fantasy and appropriation. A Human-centred IoT would imply an environment where IoT will empower people and not transform them into hostages of technology. Always being connected to the things around us has the potential to lead to more surveillance or more profiling by public authorities and private entities. More generally, without appropriate legal, technical and organisational safeguards, the IoT may facilitate the emergence of a de-humanised world, where machines enforce rules stringently, reduce humans’ freedom, and room for fantasy, and contact among them by make steps to controlling their behaviour.''' '''Director-General Roberto Viola also recently expressed this position: "The Next Generation Internet must be built for the humans respecting our European values" <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef82"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]], [[#Security|Security]].''</small>
  
 +
'''Human-centred production: '''Human-centred production is an innovative technology that can efficiently utilize human and material resources in order to secure production locations.<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef83"/> <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]].''</small>
  
'''N'''
+
<span id="HMI">'''Human-Machine interface (HMI):</span> '''The user interface of a mechanical system, a vehicle or an industrial installation <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef84"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]].''</small>
  
'''Narrow Band IoT: '''Narrow Band IoT is a LPWAN radio technology standard developed by 3GPP to enable the connection of low-power IoT devices to the cellular network telecommunication bands. NB-IoT specification was frozen at Release 13 of 3GPP specification (LTE-Advanced Pro) in June 2016. It focuses on indoor coverage enabling long-life battery-powered device applications while increasing the number of connected devices [ <nowiki>[127]</nowiki>][ <nowiki> [128]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Network Communication Layer,'' ''Communications, Cellular, Long-range.''
+
<span id="H2M">'''Human-to-Machine (H2M) communication:</span> '''H2M communication is an important development within IoT for applications like remote health monitoring and activity tracking. In vivo or in vitro [[#Device|devices]] (implantable, swallow able or wearable) collect sensor [[#Data|data]] and use a wireless interface for transmitting the data. The recipient could be the health care system (physician, nurse, etc.). See also [[#M2H|Machine-to-Human (M2H) communication]]. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Wireless|Wireless]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Natural Language Processing (NLP): '''A field of computer science, artificial intelligence and computational linguistics concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages and, in particular, concerned with programming computers to fruitfully process large natural language corpora whether written or spoken. NLP is an area of research and application that explores how computers can be used to understand and manipulate natural language text or speech to do useful things [ <nowiki>[129]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Hybridity: '''Hybrid arts is a contemporary art movement in which artists work with frontier areas of science and emerging technologies. Artists work with fields such as biology, robotics, physical sciences, experimental interface technologies (such as speech, gesture, and face recognition), artificial intelligence, information visualization, and many others. They address the [[#research|research]] in many ways such as undertaking new research agendas, visualizing results in new ways, or critiquing the social implications of the research. A ‘hybrid creative’ is a transdisciplinary practitioner owning specific technical skills that may enable one to expertly and fluently navigate the specifics of the fields or ICT as well as the arts. Hybridity of competences of practitioners allows a hybrid creative to simultaneously or alternately approach a circumstance in a problem-solving mode, design thinking, and/or in a critical approach mode, artistic thinking. <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef85"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef19"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''NB-IoT: '''See Narrow Band IoT.
+
'''Hyper-connected Society: '''A society where anyone and anything is connected regardless of time and place. All humans and physical objects do (or have the possibility to) communicate with each other through a communication network <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef86"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Near Field Communication (NFC): '''Standards-based short-range wireless connectivity technology that makes life easier and more convenient for consumers around the world by making it simpler to make transactions, exchange digital content, and connect electronic devices.  NFC complements many popular consumer level wireless technologies, by utilizing the key elements in existing standards for contactless card technology (ISO/IEC 14443 A&B and JIS-X 6319-4) [ <nowiki>[222]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Wireless communication.''
+
'''Hyperconnectivity: '''Hyperconnectivity means that anyone or anything is connected anytime and anywhere. All humans and physical objects should (or have the possibility to) communicate with each other through a communication network <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef86"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Network: '''Computer networking is the practice of interfacing two or more computing devices with each other for the purpose of sharing data[ <nowiki> [130]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Network Communication Layer.''
 
  
'''Network Functions Virtualization (NFV): '''An initiative to virtualize the network services. NFV is way to reduce cost and accelerate service deployment for network operators by decoupling functions like a firewall or encryption from dedicated hardware and moving them to virtual servers [ <nowiki>[131]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[184]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Network Communication Layer.''
+
<span id="I">
 +
'''I'''
 +
</span>
 +
----
  
'''Neural Networks: '''An information processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information [ <nowiki>[132]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Processing Layer.''
+
'''ICT Art Connect: '''ICT Art Connect is the name of a study of the European Commission that revealed new evidence for the integration of the Arts as an essential and fruitful component within [[#Research|research]] and [[#Innovation|innovation]] in ICT. ARTSHARE, along with imec, the coordinating organism of the Flemish Government for ICT research, carried out the study ICT ART CONNECT: Activities Linking ICT and Art: Past Experience - Future Activities, and created a map of institutions and individuals engaged in artistic practices within ICT research projects in Europe and worldwide.''' '''Because of the study, the European Commission launched the [[#STARTS|STARTS]] programme: innovation at the nexus of Science, Technology and the Arts. ICT Art Connect concept is no longer used in the European context and has been replaced by [[#STARTS|STARTS]]<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef19"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Next Generation Networks (NGN): '''Next Generation Networks are packet-based networks that use IP to transport the various types of traffic (voice, video, data and signalling) [ <nowiki>[13</nowiki>3]]. Keywords: ''Network Communication Layer.''
+
'''Identification: '''The act of allowing a [[#Device|device]] or service to be specifically and uniquely identified without ambiguity. This may take the form of RFID tag identifiers, IP addresses, global unique identifiers, functional or capability identifiers, or data source identifiers <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef240"/>. <br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#AI|AI]],[[#IoT|IoT]],[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]]''</small>
  
NFC''': '''See Near Field Communication.
+
'''Identity and Access Management (IAM): '''IAM facilitates management through digital identities and is the security discipline that enables the right individuals to access the right resources at the right times for the right reasons. Mission-critical needs are addressed to ensure appropriate access to resources across increasingly heterogeneous technology environments, and to meet increasingly rigorous compliance requirements. ECSO have identified IAM as an area that will be challenged by IoT with its extended range of needs created by the increased mixture and scale and distribution of [[#Device|devices]] brought on by IoT, M2M and H2M interactions.<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef271"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Security|Security]],[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''NFV: '''See Network Function Virtualization.
+
'''Impact Attainment Strategy (IAS) KPIs: '''KPIs that target both the technological evaluation of the IoT platform and the impact evaluation that focus on dissemination, standardization and co-creation KPIs.<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef290"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
NGN''': '''See Next Generation Networks.
+
'''Inclusiveness: '''Enables AI-based IoT systems to allow human intervention even in the most automated decision and communication processes. This is essential to avoid the formation of isolated non-AI capable sub-systems within a process, production system or supply chain.<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef234"/>.[[#Network communication layer|Network communication layer]]''</small>
  
NLP''': '''See Natural Language Processing.
+
'''Independent living: '''Independent living is the daily demonstration of human rights-based disability policies. Independent living is possible through the combination of various environmental and individual factors that allow disabled people to have control over their own lives. This includes the opportunity to make real choices and decisions regarding where to live, with whom to live and how to live. Services must be available, accessible to all and provided on the basis of equal opportunity, free and informed consent, and allowing disabled people flexibility in their daily lives. Independent living requires the built environment, transport and information to be accessible as well as the availability of technical aids, access to personal assistance and/or community-based services. It is necessary to point out that independent living is for all disabled persons, regardless of gender, age and the level of their support needs <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef87"/>. <br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#AI|AI]],[[#IoT|IoT]],[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]]''</small>
  
 +
'''Industrial Internet of things (IIoT): '''The IIoT is a subset of the IoT, where edge devices, processing units and networks interact with their environments to generate [[#Data|data]] to improve processes. It also, and describes the IoT when used across various several types of industrial sectors, (manufacturing, logistics, energy, etc.)<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef88"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef89"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
 +
<span id="Industry">'''Industry 4.0: </span>'''Industry 4.0 is the naming provided to the current automation trend for manufacturing in which cyber-physical systems, IoT and [[#Cloud|Cloud]] computing combine together. It is also referred to as smart manufacturing. It is the next expected industrial [[#Revolution|Revolution]], preceded by the mechanization and steam power (1st Revolution, the electrical mass production assembly line (2nd Revolution and computer automation (3rd Revolution). In this complex new process, cyber-physical systems monitor real processes, creating a virtual copy of the real world and making decentralized decisions. IoT is used to permit communicate these cyber-physical systems to communicate with other systems and humans, in a way that they can jointly collaborate in real- time. All relevant data is centralized and exploited in Cloud computing services, optimizing the maintenance and decision taking procedures <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef90"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef91"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''O'''
+
'''Information technology (IT): '''IT is the application of computers to store, operate, communicate, gather and manipulate information, in the business context. It is often regarded as a branch of Information and Control Technologies (ICT). It is often used as a synonym for computer networks, although it covers a wider spectrum of technologies, such as television and Cellular communications, among others, including IoT and wireless sensor devices, and others.''' '''Alternatively, a set of tools, processes, and methodologies and associated equipment employed to collect, process and present information <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef92"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[#Wireless|wireless]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]], ICT.''</small>
  
'''Open Data: '''Open data is data that can be freely used, re-used and redistributed by anyone subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and share alike[ <nowiki> [134]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[135]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Infrastructure: '''Infrastructure is the foundation or framework that supports a system or organization<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef93"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: '[[#Abstractionlayer|Abstraction Layer]]'</small>
  
'''Operation technology (OT): '''Hardware and software that detects or causes a change through the direct monitoring and/or control of physical devices, processes and events in the enterprise [ <nowiki>[14]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Service Layer.''
+
<span id="Innovation">'''Innovation: '''</span>The traditional definition of [[#Innovation|innovation]] is the launch of a new product or version new species of an already known product, application of new methods of production or sales of a product (not yet proven in the [[#Industry|industry]]), opening of a new market (the market for which a branch of the  industry was not yet represented), acquiring of new sources of supply of raw material or semi-finished goods, or a new industry structure such as the creation or destruction of a monopoly position. A more up-to-date definition can refer to the successful implementation (as evidenced by the market introduction) of an idea that provides a novel solution to a problem <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef94"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
OT: See Operation Technology.
+
'''Innovation Ecosystems: '''While a concrete definition has not been decided, we propose that an [[#Innovation|innovation]] ecosystem refers to the interdependent agencies and agents (e.g. universities, corporates, start-ups, public bodies) that drive the innovation process from conception to market which involving cooperation and competition <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef95"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Outcome-based Agricultural Services: '''Agricultural services that are able to deliver not only pure agricultural produces and products, but also quantifiable results that matter to their customers such as crop yield, energy saved, machine uptime, and carbon footprint. Such outcome-based services are possible thanks to the use of technology such as IoT which permits the ability to monitor and control farm processes [ <nowiki>[16]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts, Farming.''
+
'''Integrator: '''The integrators offer businesses the opportunity to build an application which meets their own needs and then integrate or install it on the server of the customer. These applications typically operate with multiple elements of a company IT system. For example, an application can automatically extract data from the customer database and subsequently analyse it with a big data integrated application <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
 +
'''Integration: '''Enables IoT-embedding AI systems to exhibit an open and flexible perspective by consolidating insights from all existing systems and processes. Bridging possible gaps is a key prerequisite of the establishing AI methods in the industry according to a sustainable roadmap <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef236"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#AI|AI]], [[#IoT|IoT]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]]''</small>
  
 +
'''Integrity: '''A critical measure in information assurance and is defined as providing consistency or a lack of corruption within the IoT system. It requires the final information received to correspond with the original information sent and that data cannot be modified without detection. Malicious modification of the information exchanged may disrupt the correct functioning of an entire IoT ecosystem <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef244"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#AI|AI]],[[#IoT|IoT]],[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]]''</small>
  
'''P'''
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'''Intelligent Building Management System (IBMS): '''Intelligent building management systems (IBMS) are used to manage the technology involved in modern buildings. All the management systems installed in a building are integrated in the IBMS via an Internet protocol (IP) network, enabling the management of all the subsystems through a single front-end interface. This helps to reduce the energy consumption and carbon footprint of the building, to maintain its infrastructure, to comply with regulations, to reduce operating costs, to reduce the need for inspection, to reduce errors and failures, and to improve building safety, among others.<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef227"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]].''</small>
  
'''Paradigm: '''A paradigm is a standard, perspective, or set of ideas. A paradigm is a way of looking at something [ <nowiki>[136]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
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'''Intelligent Vehicles: '''An intelligent vehicle is defined as a vehicle equipped with perception, reasoning, and actuating devices that enable the automation of driving tasks such as safe lane following, obstacle avoidance, overtaking slower traffic, following the vehicle ahead, anticipating and avoiding dangerous situations, and determining the route. The general motivation for the development of intelligent vehicles is safer, more convenient and efficient road traffic. <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef228"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Personalized Nutrition: '''Personalized nutrition can be defined as developing unique nutrition guidelines for each individual. Precision nutrition seeks to develop effective approaches based on the combination of an individual's genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors [ <nowiki>[137]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Interface: '''An interface is a point of interaction between two systems. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Pervasive: '''Spreading or spread throughout[ <nowiki> [138]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Internet of Autonomous things (IoAT): '''IoAT refers to bring devices things, including artificial intelligence and machine learning, being brought into the physical environment as autonomous entities, moving and interacting with humans and other [[#Device|devices]] without human intervention. IoAT includes topics like mastering varied surroundings, device identification, dynamic discoverability, context- based cognitive network integration, and seamless platform integration. Examples of IoAT applications are autonomous vehicles and self-navigating drones. Sometimes the expression Autonomous Internet of things (A-IoT) is used for IoAT <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef88"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef96"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Physical: '''Physical refers to tangible objects that are perceived through the senses. Within IoT it refers to the hardware like sensors, devices and networking gear.''' '''Keywords: ''Physical Layer.''
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<span id="IoB">'''Internet of Buildings (IoB):</span> '''An application domain of IoT, where information from multiple intelligent building management systems are gathered and integrated by IoB, for optimising the behaviour of individual buildings as part of a larger information system. The edge devices are important components for value creation through [[#Data|data]] collection, exchange and processing <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef88"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Platforms: '''A platform is a specific combination of hardware and operating system and/or compiler. See also IoT Platforms [ <nowiki>[139]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Abstraction Layer.''
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<span id="IoE">'''Internet of energy (IoE):</span> '''A dynamic energy network infrastructure including energy [[#Cloud|cloud]] storage based on standard and interoperable communication protocols that interconnect the energy network with the Internet allowing units of energy (locally generated, stored, and forwarded) to be dispatched bidirectionally when and where it is needed. The related information/[[#Data|data]] and financial transactions follows the energy flows thus implementing the necessary information exchange together with the energyand financial transfers. Internet of Energy refers to the current trend among followed by energy producers and distribution grid operators of upgrading and automating electricity infrastructures to adapt the to the new decentralized and customer- centred model pushed by renewable energies, the new role of prosumers and the adoption of novel communication and data processing technologies. IoT plays a key role on this new Internet of Energy concept. IoT [[#Device|devices]] will be put in place on all value chain parts, including monitoring devices for energy plants (allowing optimal operation and maintenance for the generation), automating and controlling devices on the grid (smartening the distribution grid) and real-time monitoring on customer side (enabling real-time bi-directional communication with users) <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef9"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef97"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef222"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef223"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]].''</small>
  
'''Policy and regulations: '''Technology policy is a form of 'active industrial policy', and effectively argues, based on the empirical facts of technological development as observed across various societies, industries and time periods,&nbsp;that markets rarely decide industrial fortunes in and of their own and state-intervention or support is required to overcome standard cases of market-failure (which may include, for example, under-funding of Research & Development in highly competitive markets) [ <nowiki>[185]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
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<span id="IoH">'''Internet of Health (IoH):</span> '''An IoT application domain within the healthcare sector. The IoH concept refers to a large-scale system for reliable communication, information exchange and interaction possibilities facilitating more efficient, affordable and better-quality healthcare, together with enhanced patient experience and engagement. For instance, through improved or new remote health- monitoring and activity- tracking methods; diagnostics, treatment and medication methods; and patient flow, record-keep journaling and administrative methods. New communication, health and welfare technologies provide new services regardless of geographic localisation. A careful balance between [[#Data|data]] access and sharing of information are required to ensure security and privacy <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef16"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef98"/>'''.<br/> <small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Policy on IoT: '''A document that provides a comprehensive guide to helping an organization promote the development of IoT and/or deal with the complex issues related to that development. [ <nowiki>[140]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
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'''Internet of Mobile Things (IoMT): '''This is an application domain where mobile [[#Device|devices]] things are included in the IoT network/system. These mobile devices are characterized by increasing diversity and number, which challenge device identification, dynamic discoverability, context based cognitive network integration, and seamless platform integration. Some general examples of mobile devices today are sensors/actuators embedded in smartphones, smartwatches and cameras. To avoid misunderstandings, we mention that the abbreviation IoMT is also used for Internet of Medical things <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef88"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef99"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Precision Agriculture: '''Precision Agriculture is a whole-farm management approach using information technology, satellite positioning (GNSS) data, remote sensing and proximal data gathering. These technologies have the goal of optimising returns on inputs whilst potentially reducing environmental impacts [ <nowiki>[141]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
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<span id="IoRT">'''Internet of Robotic Things (IoRT): </span>'''A concept that incorporate robotics aspects into the IoT landscape to provide advanced robotic capabilities, where intelligent [[#Device|devices]] (robotic things) are able to monitor events, collect sensor [[#Data|data]] from different sources, and use distributed intelligence to determine best solutions before effectuating an action on objects in the physical world. See also [[#RT|Robotic things]]<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef88"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef100"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef101"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Precision farming: '''Precision farming is farm management at a level that allows inputs to be tailored to variable conditions across short distances in a single field [ <nowiki>[142]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
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<span id="IoV">'''Internet of Vehicles (IoV): </span>'''The IoV concept refers to connected vehicles in a large-scale distributed system for reliable dynamic communication and information exchange facilitating smart mobility and transport, through traffic management, information services, environmental protection, road safety, assisted/autonomous driving, etc. The communication network includes both mobile internet communication, inter-vehicle/infrastructure communication, and intra-vehicle communication, as well as storage, artificial intelligence, learning, sensing, and decision-making capabilities <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef88"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef100"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef101"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Predictive Maintenance: '''Also called condition-based maintenance, predictive maintenance is a maintenance policy that sets out the regular monitoring of machine and equipment conditions to better understand their operating condition and thus be able to schedule maintenance interventions only when they are really needed. Maintenance interventions are programmed in real-time avoiding unforeseen downtime and their related negative implications. The integration of digital technologies such as IoT in machinery and equipment facilitates predictive maintenance [ <nowiki>[16]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts, Industry.''
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<span id="Interoperability">'''Interoperability:</span> '''Interoperability is a characteristic of a product or system, whose interfaces are perfectly able, to work with other products or systems, at present or future, in either implementation or access, without any restrictions<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef104"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Preventive Maintenance: '''Time-driven maintenance policy that seeks to correctly predict the optimal times of maintenance interventions in order to anticipate the failure of complex systems. Preventive maintenance results in maintenance interventions scheduled based on the mean-time-to-failure statistic [ <nowiki>[16]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts, Industry.''
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'''IoB: '''See [[#IoB|Internet of Buildings]]
  
'''Printed Circuit: '''A circuit for electronic apparatus made by depositing conductive material in continuous paths from terminal to terminal on an insulating surface [ <nowiki>[186]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Physical Layer.''
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'''IoE: '''See [[#IoE|Internet of energy]]
  
'''Privacy: '''Privacy refers to a person's right to control access to his or her personal data and be free from intrusion, misuse or disclosure by third parties. This definition extends the right of a person to control what is and isn't available on the internet. In the United States of America, privacy is used to refer to Data Protection [ <nowiki>[143]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
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'''IoH:''' See [[#IoH|Internet of Health]]
  
'''Privacy-by-default: '''Obligation under Art. 25 of the GDPR - By default, only personal data that are essential to the stated purpose of each process shall be processed and that personal data are not made accessible without the individual’s intervention to an indefinite number of natural persons [ <nowiki>[144]</nowiki>].
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'''IoRT:''' See [[#IoR|Internet of Robotic things]]
  
'''Privacy-by-design: '''Obligation under Art.25 of the GDPR - Privacy should be taken into account throughout the entire engineering process from the earliest design stages to the operation of the productive system i.e. that data protection safeguards (also known as Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PETs)) should be built into products and services from the earliest stage of development [ <nowiki>[145]</nowiki>].
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'''IoT: '''See [[#IoT|Internet of things]]
  
'''Proactive Maintenance: '''In opposition to corrective (reactive) maintenance, proactive maintenance seeks to detect and correct the root cause aberrations of failure (unstable operating conditions that will lead to actual failure unless they are corrected) [ <nowiki>[146]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
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'''IoT Applications: '''Applications that run in an IoT system.
  
'''Production Systems: '''A manufacturing subsystem that includes all functions required to design, produce, distribute, and service a manufactured product [ <nowiki>[147]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Application Layer.''
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'''IoT Data: '''[[#Data|Data]] is the real value offered by IoT. Most business models for IoT are based on how to exploit and extract value out of the data being posted by deployed IoT [[#Device|devices]] in the field. In this data-driven scenario, it is critical to conduct measurements properly. The phenomenon/device monitored should be carefully selected to assure its relevance. Moreover, the accuracy of the measurement should also be guaranteed so as to avoid misleading information and, therefore, decisions. These decisions should drive data processing and [[#Analytics|Analytics]]. A business strategy for IoT should consider how to exploit data through analysis<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef105"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef106"/>. <br/>
 +
<small>Keywords: ''[[#Storage layer|Storage layer]], [[#Data|data]], [[#Analytics|Analytics]].''</small>
  
'''Programme: '''A plan of activities to be done or things to be achieved [ <nowiki>[148]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
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'''IoT devices: '''IoT [[#Device|devices]] range from large, industrial sensing devices to tiny implants or from high-demanding video-surveillance devices to low-rate pulse sensors. They all have in common that they are deployed to serve a business/[[#Industry|industry]]/particular need and are able to remotely report [[#Data|data]]. In terms of communication capabilities, they can use [[#Short-range|short-range]] radio interfaces (usually being grouped towards a high-end device acting as gateway to the Internet), [[#Long-range|long-range]] radio interfaces (such as LPWAN, Cellular, etc.) or even wired communication links. They can also be classified as just data-posting devices (unicast communication link) or actuators (accepting external commands and, thus, using bidirectional communication links) <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef105"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef106"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Physical layer|Physical layer]].''</small>
  
'''Prosumer: '''In the 1980 book, The Third Wave, futurologist Alvin Toffler coined the term "prosumer" when he predicted that the role of producers and consumers would begin to blur and merge. George Ritzer and Nathan Jurgenson, in a widely-cited article, claim that prosumption has become a salient characteristic of Web 2.0. Prosumers create value for companies without receiving wages. Sparked by technology and led by global consumer culture's dominance, 21st-century consumption has been radically transformed; co-creation and prosumption being some of its most representative examples.''' '''The prosumer actively works to produce the services and goods they buy and consume. For example: self-check-outs at the supermarket, the DIY furniture of Ikea, or online order and delivery services such as E-bay or Amazon. In fact, with the huge help of the Internet, most prosumption is happening in the online world. The most common example is Wikipedia where the users can generate, edit, update and comment on articles.''' '''Nevertheless, it is not enough to create stimulating contexts and environments for consumers to take an active role. For prosumption to be integrated in technological development in IoT at a significant level, commitment of prosumers is key. Commitment is a limited resource in a context where “consumer fatigue” – consumers frustrated by technological solutions that they no longer understand and whose utility they no longer perceive – is an encompassing trend in consumer research[ <nowiki> [149]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[150]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[151]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[152]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
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'''IoT Ecosystem: '''Solutions comprising large heterogeneous systems of systems, solving challenges across application [[#Verticals|verticals]]. In these ecosystems, IoT acts as an essential driver for optimization, [[#Innovation|innovation]], competitiveness and business based on enabling technologies and collaboration among various stakeholders. It increases the value creation through exchange of information between multiple domains while maintaining privacy and security. Complementary architecture for seamless IoT integration is important to ensure interoperability. Open technologies and platforms are preferable<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef16"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef88"/>.<br/> <small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
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<span id="LSP">'''IoT European Large-Scale Pilots (IoT-LSPs):</span> '''The IoT European Large-Scale Pilots Programme in Horizon 2020's work programme 2016-2017, includes IoT-LSP projects addressing the IoT applications based on European relevance, technology readiness and socio-economic interest in Europe. (ACTIVAGE, MONICA, IoF2020, AUTOPILOT, SYNCHRONICITY, U4IoT, and CREATE-IoT). The IoT-LSPs involve stakeholders from supply side to demand side, and contain all the technological and [[#Innovation|innovation]] elements and tasks related to the use, application and deployment, as well as development of technology, testing and integration activities. The pilot projects are also accompanied by coordination and support actions to ensure smooth and efficient cooperation and management of the various activities of the Focus Area (FA) as well as to support cross- fertilisation of the various pilot projects for technological and validation issues of common interest across the various use cases. The European Large-Scale Pilots Programme website is available https://european-iot-pilots.eu/. See also [[#LSP|Large-Scale Pilot (LSP)]] <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef107"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef108"/>. <br/>
 +
<small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
 +
<span id="EP"> '''IoT European Platforms Initiative (IoT-EPI): </span>'''A European initiative for IoT platform development, interoperability and information-sharing, founded by the EU to build a vibrant and sustainable IoT ecosystem in Europe. Seven leading [[#Research|research]] and [[#Innovation|innovation]] projects (AGILE, bIoTope, BIG IoT, Inter-IoT, symbIoTe, TagItSmart!, VICINITY) supported by two coordination and support action projects Be-IoT and UNIFY-IoT make their technology accessible to third parties. In addition, a strong support and funding structure in the form of open calls and workshops fosters further collaboration. Their website is available on http://iot-epi.eu/. See also [[#EP|IoT European Platforms Initiative (IoT-EPI)]]<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef109"/>. <br/>
 +
<small>Keywords: ''[[#Collaboration and Process Layer|Collaboration and Process Layer]],[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Q'''
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'''IoT Gateway: '''An Internet of Things (IoT) gateway is a physical device or software program that serves as the connection point between the cloud and controllers, sensors and intelligent device<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef249"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
QoS''': '''See Quality of Service.
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<span id="IoTOS">'''IoT Operating Systems: '''</span>As IoT hardware providers peaked over the past few years, so did IoT Operating Systems (OS) seeing, as they are sometimes tied to a particular platform. There are also some commonly used alternatives, being Linux-based [[#OS|OS]]being the most used alternative these nowadays. IoT OSs are often tied to particular [[#Device|device]] needs.  Therefore, there is not a single approach but multiple options that can be considered depending on the application. Determining if real-time performance is needed, memory size, catching capabilities or CPU processing requirements, level of required security, hardware constraints, and shaping the communication/networking needs are decisive aspects to take into account when choosing the IoT [[#OS|OS]]<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef105"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef106"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Physical layer|Physical layer]].''</small>
  
''''''QR codes: '''A QR code is a type of matrix (or bi-dimensional, BiDi) barcodes. Barcodes are machine-readable, optical labels including relevant information about the object to which it is attached. A QR code can encode its information using four different and standardized modes, namely kanji, alphanumeric, numeric and byte/binary, although extensions can also be used. QR codes are specifically designed for cameras to read. It is commonly presented as small black squares arranged in a square grid on a white background. QR codes are especially interesting for IoT as they enable device identification and interaction with other devices or human users [ <nowiki>[153]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Physical Layer, Image, Code.''
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<span id="IoTP">'''IoT Platforms: </span>'''IoT Platforms refer to online management tools for IoT [[#Device|devices]], often combining multiple applications such as device management, [[#Security|security]], Data Analytics and visualization tools. IoT platforms range from hardware vendor operated (tied to a particular IoT device, network operated (tied to a particular communication network provider) and system integrator operated (offering interoperability approaches)<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef105"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef106"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Service layer|Service layer]], [[#Data|Data]].''</small>
  
'''Quality of Service (QoS): '''Quality of Service refers to the measurement of the performance, usually observed user-side, of services such as telephony, cloud, computer or IoT networks. This assessment includes several aspects such as latency, error rate, throughput and availability. Quality of Service is relevant to any IoT network whose applications are oriented toward interactions with humans. They should perceive smooth communication and critical or real-time operations where delays and error rates should be minimized[ <nowiki> [106]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Network Communication Layer, Communications, Quality, User-experience.''
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'''IoT policy: '''AIs a document that provides a comprehensive guide to help an organization promote the development of the IoT and/or deal with the complex issues related to that development <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef110"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
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'''IoT Service: '''Software component enabling interaction with resources through a well-defi ned interface. Can be orchestrated together with non-IoT services (e.g. enterprise services). Interaction with the service is done via the network.<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef331"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
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'''IoT Standardization: '''IoT standardization can be divided into four categories: Platform, Connectivity, Business Model and Killer Applications<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef111"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''R'''
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'''IoT Standards: '''Standard model to perform common IoT-backend tasks <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef111"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]].''</small>
  
'''RAMI: '''RAMI 4.0 stands for Reference Architectural Model Industrie 4.0. RAMI 4.0 is a service-oriented architecture that combines all elements and IT components using a layer and life cycle model. RAMI 4.0 breaks down complex processes into easy-to-grasp packages along three dimensions: hierarchy levels (related to the systems, machines and products present in the factory), the product life cycle and a layered architecture [ <nowiki>[154]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Service Layer.''
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'''IoT Standards Landscape: '''Support of a large variety of applications departing from existing [[#Silos|silos]] and the generation of healthy ecosystems<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef112"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Reasonable: '''Reasonable refers mainly to the licensing rates. According to some, a reasonable licensing rate is a rate charged on licenses which would not result in an unreasonable aggregate rate if all licensees were charged a similar rate [ <nowiki>[187]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
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<span id="IoTECH">'''IoT technology:</span> '''It brings together two evolving technologies: Wireless connectivity and smart sensors<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef113"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Wireless|Wireless]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Reference Architecture Model: '''A reference model that provides an architectural template solution for a particular domain. Concerning IoT, there is a need to standardize a reference architecture model in order to support the interoperability in IoT. In this context, the IoT platforms are the highest, most generalized layer of intelligence and user interface that ties together connected devices and web-based services. They collectively define a reference architecture model for IoT. A wide range of technologies, communication protocols, layers, dimensions and standards are taken into consideration. An example of a reference architecture model initiative is Industrie 4.0 (RAMI). See also Architecture and Industrie 4.0 [ <nowiki>[155]</nowiki>][ <nowiki> [86]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
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'''IoT trust|: '''[[#trust|trust]] management plays an important role in IoT for reliable [[#Data|data]] fusion and mining, qualified services with context-awareness, and enhanced user privacy and information security. It helps people overcome perceptions of uncertainty and risk and engages in user acceptance and consumption of IoT services and applications<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef114"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Regulations'''
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'''IoV:''' See [[#IoV|Internet of Vehicles]].
  
Regulations can refer to either specific European Law or a more general description. In European Law, a regulation is a legal act adopted by the European institutions and are legally binding with immediate application in all member states providing homogenous application of EU law across states. Generally, a regulation is the application of a set of standards, norms and/or responsibilities overseen by an external body (i.e. government) or internally (e.g. industry body)to ensure the maintenance of quality or proper functioning of a product, service or market and to support consistency across jurisdictions [ <nowiki>[156]</nowiki>][ <nowiki> [157]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
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'''IT:''' See [[#IoTECH|Information Technology]].
  
'''Research: '''Systematic investigative process employed to increase or revise current knowledge by discovering new facts. It is divided into two general categories:''' '''''(i)''''' '''Basic research is inquiry aimed at increasing scientific knowledge. ''(ii) ''Applied research is effort aimed at using basic research for solving problems or developing new processes, products, or techniques [ <nowiki>[188]</nowiki>]'''. '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
 
  
''''''Resource virtualization: '''Resource virtualization consists in either partitioning a single physical resource into multiple virtual resources or aggregating multiple physical resources into one virtual resource [ <nowiki>[189]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Abstraction Layer.''
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=== J-M ===
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<span id="J">
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</span>
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<span id="K">
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'''K'''
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----
  
'''RFID: '''RFID stands for Radio Frequency identification and refers to a system of storing and retrieving data wirelessly using tags, smart cards or RFID transponders. It uses electromagnetic fields to identify tags attached to objects which should be brought into proximity of a reader with a typical coverage of a couple of centimetres. Tags can be passive (unpowered and just readable when close enough) or active (battery powered and with extended coverage). RFID is commonly embedded into IoT applications and deployments as an easy way to identify devices and/or interact with humans [ <nowiki>[158]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[159]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Physical Layer, Communications, Short-range, Tags.''
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'''Key Enabling Technologies (KET): '''KETs are a group of six technologies that have a wide range of product applications such as developing low carbon energy technologies, improving energy and resource efficiency, and creating new medical products. They have huge potential to fuel economic growth and provide jobs <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef179"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Risk: '''Potential that a given threat will exploit vulnerabilities of an asset or group of assets to cause loss or damage to the assets [ <nowiki>[190]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
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'''Knowledge economy: '''Economies which are directly based on the production, distribution and use of knowledge and information. <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef294"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Robotics: '''Branch of science that deals with making and using robots [ <nowiki>[191]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
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<span id="KPI">'''Key Performance Indicator (KPI):</span> '''A KPI is a high-level metric that measures the performance of a company, business unit, project, process or system that aligns with the organisational strategy or the desired outcomes of the process or system in question <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef115"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
Robotic Things''': '''See Internet of Robotic Things (IoRT).
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'''KPI: '''See [[#KPI|Key Performance Indicator]].
  
  
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<span id="L">
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'''L'''
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</span>
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----
  
'''S'''
+
'''Land parcel identification system (LPIS): '''This computer database contains all agricultural areas that are eligible for a direct payment under the Common Agricultural Policy. It is used to cross-check the parcels for which payments have been claimed by the farmer. The land parcel identification system ensures that the farmer is paid for the correct area and that overpayment is avoided. <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef338"/>
  
'''Safety: '''In IT systems, it refers to functional safety (in the physical not digital dimensions) [ <nowiki>[192]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Liability: '''Product liability is the area of law in which manufacturers, distributors, suppliers, retailers, and others who make products available to the public are held responsible for the injuries those products cause <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef180"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
SDN''': '''See Software Defined Network.
+
'''Lifecycle management: '''Activities related to the follow-up and supervision of the evolution of a system, product, service, project, or other human-made entity from conception through retirement <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef181"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Security: '''Property of an IT system by which confidentiality, integrity, availability, accountability, authenticity, and reliability are achieved [ <nowiki>[193]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Linked Data: '''Data expressed using W3C’s Resource Description Format, where the URIs for nodes and predicates can be dereferenced to obtain further data/metadata. There is a rapidly expanding set of Linked Open Datasets.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Security-by-design: '''The capability of an ICT product to protect information and data so that unauthorised persons or systems cannot read or modify them and authorised persons or systems are not denied access to them [ <nowiki>[194]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Long-range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN): '''The [[#Wireless|wireless]] LoRaWAN technology for [[#Long-range|long-range]] radio, low power, and low [[#Data|data]] rate IoT applications are based on spread spectrum chipsets from Semtech Corporation, but promoted by the non-profit association LoRa Alliance. Typical characteristics are distances of up to 20 km, battery- powered end-nodes of up to 10 years’ lifetime, and data rates ranging from 0.3 kbps to 50 kbps in the 869 and 900 MHz ISM bands. Switching between LoRa chirp spread spectrum (CSS) and frequency-shift keying (FSK) modulation are facilitated. The network server hosts the system intelligence and complexity (e.g., duplicate packets elimination, acknowledgement scheduling, data rate adapting). All connections are bidirectional, support multicast operation, and forms a star of stars topology. To serve different applications, the end-nodes are classified in three different classes, which trade off communication latency versus power consumption. Class A is the most energy efficient, and is implemented in all end-nodes. Classes B and C are optional and must be class- A- compatible. A spreading factor (SF) is used to increase the network capacity. A higher SF gives longer communication range, but also implies decreased data rate and increased energy consumption. For frequent data sampling, LoRa systems use an SF as small as possible to limit the airtime, which requires end-nodes located closer to the gateways <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef117"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef118"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: '[[#Network communication layer|Network communication layer]]'</small>
  
'''Self-healing: '''Self-healing can be defined as the property that enables a system to perceive that it is not operating correctly and, without (or with) human intervention, make the necessary adjustments to restore itself to normality [ <nowiki>[195]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Loss given event (LGE): '''In operational risk the loss given event (LGE) is the amount of a potential loss in the event of an operational loss event occurring.<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef250"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]]''</small>
  
'''Self-optimizing: '''The conceivable development of information technology will enable mechatronic systems with inherent partial intelligence. We call this kind of systems self-optimizing [ <nowiki>[196]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''LPWAN: '''LPWAN stands for Low Power Wide Area Network, and refers to the type of wireless network designed to allow long- range communications at low- bit rates, which is especially interesting for the vast great majority of IoT [[#Device|devices]]. It is also specifically designed for low- power devices, in contrast with other  wireless wide- area networks such as Cellular networks, requiring more expensive and power-demanding radio modules, as they allow high- throughput rates. LPWAN technologies can be used to create private networks or a service provided by a third party, eliminating, thus, the need for gateway deployments seeing, as IoT devices can connect directly connect to the network. LPWAN technologies have appeared in the recent past and, evolving into a reality nowadays. The most commonly LPWAN networks/technologies used in Europe, currently are SigFox and LoRa, although NB-IoT is also a promising alternative <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef117"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef119"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Wireless|Wireless]], [[#Network communication layer|Network communication layer]].''</small>
  
'''Self-protecting: '''Self-protecting software systems are a class of autonomic systems capable of detecting and mitigating security threats at runtime [ <nowiki>[197]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''LSP: '''See [[#LSP|IoT Large Scale Pilot Program]].
  
'''Services: '''Services are intangible products provided to a customer or user enabling them to achieve a task or goal.''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
 
  
'''Silver economy: '''Existing and emerging economic opportunities associated with the growing public and consumer expenditure related to population ageing and the specific needs of the population over 50 [ <nowiki>[160]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
<span id="M">
 +
'''M'''
 +
</span>
 +
----
  
'''Smart Buildings: '''Smart building encompass many things, but, the primary goal is the use of building technology systems to enable enhanced services and the efficient operation of a building for the betterment of its occupants and building management. The main drivers of smart buildings are the positive financial impacts of integrated system, energy conservation, greater systems functionality, and the continuing evolution of technology [ <nowiki>[198]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''M2H: '''See [[#M2H|Machine-to-human]]
  
'''Smart City: '''Smart city refers to those cities integrating Information Technologies together with IoT technology to gather and monitor data from its assets (including hospitals, power plants, transportation systems, local information systems and water supply networks) and citizens. The data gathered is used to optimize the services being monitored and enhance quality of life for all citizens [ <nowiki>[161]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Application Layer, Applications, Cities, Verticals.''
+
'''M2M: '''See [[#M2M|Machine-to-Machine]]
  
'''Smart Clothing: '''Life simulation system which has perception and feedback of clothing. Smart clothing can sense changes in internal and external environmental conditions, as well as make real-time or near-time self-report feedback [ <nowiki>[199]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Machine-to-human (M2H) communication: '''The concept of letting the machines interact with humans based on either voice or gestures is called machine-to-human interaction. See also [[#H2M|Human-to-Machine communication]] <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef121"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: '[[#Abstractionlayer|Abstraction Layer]]'</small>
  
'''Smart Energy: '''Smart energy system is defined as an approach in which smart electricity, thermal and gas grids are combined and coordinated to identify synergies between them in order to achieve and optimal solution for each individual sector as well as for the overall energy system [ <nowiki>[200]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Machine-to-Machine (M2M): '''Machine- to- machine communications refers to such communications involving just [[#Device|devices]] (without human intervention) and using any means of communication channels, including wireless. It constitutes a subset of use cases covered by the whole spectrum of IoT cases, as they also include devices triggered or operated by humans. M2M was built from the seed of current IoT and [[#Industry|industry]] 4.0 technology, with networks of machines relaying information back to a central computing system in charge of analysing the information. Currently, those systems evolved into the current usage of M2M to allow systems of networks to transmitting [[#Data|data]] to personal appliances<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef122"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Network communication layer|Network communication layer]].''</small>
  
'''Smart Environments: '''Any space where ubiquitous technology informs the learning process in an unobtrusive, social or collaborative manner [ <nowiki>[201]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Manufacturing Digitisation: '''See [[#SM|Smart Manufacturing]]
  
'''Smart Farming: '''Smart Farming techniques help produce more food from fewer resources, including soil, water, fertilisers, pesticides and human effort. Predictive analytics helps improve yields, reduce crop diseases and optimise resource utilisation. Smart farming concept brings together researches, farms and industry to produce food smarter [ <nowiki>[202]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
''Manufacturing readiness level (MRL): '''Manufacturing readiness level (MRL) is a measure to asses the maturity of manufacturing readiness. The ten MRLs are correlated to the nine TRLs in use, while the final MRL level measures aspects lean practices and continuous improvement for systems in production. The following MRL definitions were developed by a joint DoD (US Department of Defence)/Industry working group:  MRL 1: Basic Manufacturing Implications Identified, MRL 2: Manufacturing Concepts Identified, MRL 3: Manufacturing Proof of Concept Developed, MRL 4: Capability to produce the technology in a laboratory environment, MRL 5: Capability to produce prototype components in a production relevant environment, MRL 6: Capability to produce a prototype system or subsystem in a production relevant environment, MRL 7: Capability to produce systems, subsystems, or components in a production representative environment, MRL 8: Pilot line capability demonstrated; ready to begin Low Rate Initial Production (LRIP), MRL 9: Low rate production demonstrated; Capability in place to begin Full Rate
 +
Production (FRP), and MRL 10: Full Rate Production demonstrated and lean production practices inplace.<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef251"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]]''</small>
  
'''Smart Health: '''The technology that leads to better diagnostic tools, better treatment for patients, and devices that improve the quality of life for anyone and everyone [ <nowiki>[203]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Market: '''Markets for technology refer to “transactions for the use, diffusion and creation of knowledge and technology". They are places where the technology seller (supply side) meets the technology buyer (demand side). Markets for technology can be characterised along several dimensions, including (i) their purpose, which may be to circulate existing technologies (e.g IP marketplace), or to produce or co-produce new technologies (e.g. based on bilateral contracts); and (ii) the type of technology transactions. Technology transactions can take different forms, from pure licensing or sale of well-defined intellectual property, to complicated collaborative agreements that may include the development of the technology or its realization<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef182"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]]''</small>
  
'''Smart Homes: '''Smart Home technology has become the popular name for the integration of telematics into the electrical installation of the home [ <nowiki>[204]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Application Layer.''
+
'''Market Adoption Readiness Levels (MARL): '''A new approach proposed (AIOTI WG2 [[#Innovation|innovation]] Ecosystem community) for measuring the impact of early adopter models. This approach poses the increase of TRL as one out of four factors to achieving innovation instead of being the only one. This is a promising starting point for a holistic approach to digital transformation of the EU [[#Industry|industry]]. Such an approach is mostly targeting consumer-centric and creative industries and needs substantial improvements and extensions to be applied to the manufacturing domain. So far, the four factors/levels in this approach are defined as follows: (i) Level of risk, (ii) Number of potential early adopters, (iii) Potential to yield [[#Data|data]] from early adoption, and (iv) The technology readiness <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef16"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Smart living: '''Smart living refers to improving quality of life by transforming environments to become more intelligent and adaptable to users [ <nowiki>[205]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Application Layer.''
+
'''Mass customization: '''Mass customization is a production process that combines elements of mass production with those of bespoke tailoring. Products are adapted to meet a customer's individual needs so no two items are the same. It can also be defined as the production of personalized or tailored goods or services to meet consumers' diverse and changing needs at near mass production prices. Enabled by technologies such as computerization, internet, product modularization, and lean production, it portends the ultimate stage in market segmentation where every customer can have exactly what he or she wants <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef123"/> <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef124"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]], [[#Physical layer|physical layer]].''</small>
  
'''Smart living environments: '''A physical world that is richly and invisibly interwoven with sensors, actuators, displays, and computational elements, embedded seamlessly in the everyday objects of our lives, and connected through a continuous network [ <nowiki>[206]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Application Layer.''
+
'''Massive Machine Type Communications (mMTC): '''Massive Machine Type Communications (mMTC) is one of three sets of use cases defined by 3GPP for 5G, (need to support a very large number of [[#Device|devices]] in a small area, which may only send data sporadically, such as IoT use cases). For other sets of use cases, see eMBB and uRLLC <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef272"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Wireless|Wireless]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Smart Manufacturing: '''Smart manufacturing is a broad category of manufacturing with the goal of optimizing concept generation, production, and product transaction. While manufacturing can be defined as the multi-phase process of creating a product out of raw materials, smart manufacturing is a subset that employs computer control and high levels of adaptability. Smart manufacturing aims to take advantage of advanced information and manufacturing technologies to enable flexibility in physical processes to address a dynamic and global market. There is increased workforce training for taking advantage of the increased flexibility of this technology instead of the specific tasks that are customary in traditional manufacturing[ <nowiki> [162]</nowiki>]. Keywords:'' Application Layer, Industry.''
+
'''Middleware: '''Middleware is a distributed software layer that sits above the network operating system and below the [[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]] and abstracts the heterogeneity of the underlying environment<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef183"/> .<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Smart Mobility: '''Technology that enables Intelligent Transport Systems to create highly efficient, uninterrupted and reliable transportation networks with the goal to build sustainable infrastructure for future generations [ <nowiki>[207]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''MIMO: '''Multiple Input Multiple Output technology uses multiple antennae to make use of reflected signals to provide gains in channel robustness and throughput<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef125"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: [[#Network communication layer|Network communication layer]]'</small>
  
'''Smart Objects: '''A smart object is an item equipped with a form of sensor or actuator, a tiny microprocessor, a communication device, and a power source [ <nowiki>[208]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Physical Layer.''
+
'''Mobile edge computing: '''A concept that enables information technology service environments and [[#Cloud|Cloud]] computing capabilities at the edge of the radio access networks/Cellular networks. Implementing the relevant applications nearby or at the base stations and thereby performing the processing tasks closer to the users, enables fast and flexible deployment of new context-based applications and services for the users. At the same time, it will relieve traffic in the telecommunications network. MEC is a network infrastructure component for blockchain since the replication of blocks via [[#Device|devices]] can be implemented at the edge and enables IoT applications to deliver real-time context-based mobile moments to the users. The technical standards are being developed by ETSI. See also [[#EC|Edge Computing]] <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef126"/> <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef16"/> .<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Network communication layer|Network communication layer]]''</small>
  
''''''Smart water management: '''Utility system for water supply which is characterized by the use of communication networks and the control of grid components and loads [ <nowiki>[209]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Mobility as a Service (MaaS): '''MaaS describes a shift away from personally owned modes of transportation and towards mobility solutions that are consumed as a service. The convergence of autonomous vehicles, IoT and AI applications are accelerating the implementation of IoV concept and the move to MaaS.<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef341"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Social Innovation: '''Social innovations are new ideas that meet social needs, create social relationships and form new collaborations. A considerable number of technology-based artworks, transformed into products and services, were conceived to be products from conception; not necessarily due to potential commercial reasons but instead were designed so as to have an impact on society. In this context, social innovation is a relevant aspect in IoT. Projects such as the open hardware platform Arduino show how artistic practice can lie at the basis of later technological developments with a tangible economic and societal impact. They have a concrete impact on the growth and jobs objective by enabling more people to experiment with open source digital technology. This exponentiates the probability of the creation of new products and services and contributes to socially-driven innovation processes which distinguish the EU from other players in the global market [ <nowiki>[163]</nowiki>][ <nowiki> [19]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts, SOCENT, Impact, Innovation.''
 
  
'''Software Defined Network: '''Novel network paradigm that separates each network services from its point of attachment to the network, creating a far more dynamic, flexible, automated, and manageable architecture. It is an emerging architecture that is dynamic, manageable, cost-effective, and adaptable, making it ideal for the high-bandwidth, dynamic nature of today’s applications [ <nowiki>[210]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Network Communication Layer.''
+
=== N-P ===
  
'''Standard: '''A technical standard is an established norm or requirement in regard to technical systems. It is usually a formal document that establishes uniform engineering or technical criteria, methods, processes and practices. In addition, a custom, convention, company product, corporate standard, etc. that becomes generally accepted and dominant is often called a de facto standard[ <nowiki> [164]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
<span id="N">
 +
'''N'''
 +
</span>
 +
----
  
Standardisation''': '''See Standard.
+
<span id="NB">'''Narrow Band IoT:</span> '''Narrow Band IoT is a LPWAN radio technology standard developed by 3GPP to enable the connection of low-power IoT [[#Device|devices]] to the Cellular network telecommunication bands. NB-IoT specification was frozen at Release 13 of 3GPP specification (LTE-Advanced Pro) in June 2016. It focuses on indoor coverage enabling long-life battery-powered device applications while increasing the number of connected devices <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef127"/> <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef128"/> .<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Network communication layer|Network communication layer]].''</small>
  
'''STARTS: '''The European Commission has launched a new initiative, (S+T)*ARTS=STARTS - innovation at the nexus of Science, Technology and the ARTS.  STARTS funds and encourages collaboration of the Arts with Technology by, for instance, including artists in H2020. The mission of STARTS is to bring artists into innovation. An innovation that is much more than the sum of its parts and goes well beyond: Holistic Innovation.''' '''In fact, in order to create value for citizens, industry has to think more holistically about technologies and services that put the human in the centre. Indeed, digital transformation of industry and society is already naturally uniting science and engineering with design and artistic approaches. This can be seen in many areas where art and technology naturally collaborate like in urban development or in new media like virtual and augmented reality. In this context, the Arts gain prominence as catalysts for an efficient conversion of S&T knowledge into radical novel products, services, and processes [ <nowiki>[165]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts, Arts, Innovation, Creativity.''
+
<span id="NLP">'''Natural Language Processing (NLP):</span> '''A field of computer science, artificial intelligence and computational linguistics concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages and, in particular, concerned with programming computers to fruitfully process large natural language corpora whether written or spoken. NLP is an area of [[#Research|research]] and application that explores how computers can be used to understand and manipulate natural language text or speech to do useful things <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef129"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Swarm intelligence (SI): '''This concept can be looked at as a subfield of artificial intelligence (AI) and is based on collective behaviour and interaction of decentralized and self-organized systems inspired by nature ("swarm of individuals"). With enhanced SI, IoT objects are capable of cooperating and sharing resources efficiently (by a set of algorithms). This allows for solving numerous IoT optimization challenges, which are otherwise difficult to implement due to the large resources required. Examples of IoT applications may be optimization of node localization, signal coverage, and transmission route [ <nowiki>[16]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''NB-IoT: '''See [[#NB|Narrow Band IoT]]
  
'''Swarm technologies: '''The technologies that provide swarm intelligence (SI). The swarm technologies needed are related to the applications. Together with the artificial intelligence, robotics, and machine learning; the swarm technologies are the technologies that will provide the next phase of development of IoT applications [ <nowiki>[16]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
<span id="NFC">'''Near Field Communication (NFC): </span>'''Standards-based [[#Short-range|short-range]] [[#Wireless|wireless]] connectivity technology that makes life easier and more convenient for consumers around the world by making it simpler to make transactions, exchange digital content, and connect electronic [[#Device|devices]].  NFC complements many popular consumerlevel wireless technologies, by utilizing the key elements in existing standards for contactless card technology (ISO/IEC 14443 A&B and JIS-X 6319-4) <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef221"/> . <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Wireless|Wireless]].''</small>
  
''''''Systems of systems: '''Combination of systems (being individually composed of interacting elements) organized to achieve one or more stated purposes. ''Note 1'': A system may be considered as a product and/or as the services it provides.''' '''''Note 2'': In practice, the interpretation of its meaning is frequently clarified by the use of an associative noun, e.g. aircraft system [ <nowiki>[211]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Collaboration and Process Layer.''
+
'''Network: '''Computer networking is the practice of interfacing two or more computing [[#Device|devices]] with each other for the purpose of sharing [[#Data|data]] <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef130"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: '[[#Network communication layer|Network communication layer]]'</small>
  
 +
<span id="NFV">'''Network Functions Virtualization (NFV): </span>'''An initiative to virtualize the network services. NFV is way to reduce cost and accelerate service deployment for network operators by decoupling functions like a firewall or encryption from dedicated hardware and moving them to virtual servers <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef131"/> <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef184"/> .<br/><small> Keywords: '[[#Network communication layer|Network communication layer]]'</small>
  
 +
'''Neural Networks: '''An information processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems, such as the brain, process information <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef132"/> .<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Processing layer|Processing layer]].''</small>
  
'''T'''
+
<span id="NGN">'''Next Generation Networks (NGN):</span> '''Next Generation Networks are packet-based networks that use IP to transport the various types of traffic (voice, video, [[#Data|data]] and signalling). The 5G next generation [[#core network|core network]] is the part of the network that provides services to mobile subscribers through the radio access network (RAN). It is also the gateway to other networks, for instance to the public- switched telephone or to public clouds. <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef133"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: '[[#Network communication layer|Network communication layer]]'</small>
  
'''Technology: '''Technology is a body of knowledge devoted to creating tools, processing actions and extracting of materials [ <nowiki>[212]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''NFC: '''See [[#NFC|Near Field Communication]]
  
'''Technology Readiness Level (TRL): '''A tool for describing the maturity of a technology. The scale ranges from level 1 to level 9, where each level characterises the technology development progress, from idea to product. The European Commission defines the nine Technology Readiness Levels as follows: TRL 1: Basic principles observed, TRL 2: Technology concept formulated, TRL 3: Experimental proof of concept, TRL 4: Technology validated in lab, TRL 5: Technology validated in relevant environment (industrially relevant environment in the case of key enabling technologies), TRL 6: Technology demonstrated in relevant environment, (industrially relevant environment in the case of key enabling technologies), TRL 7: System prototype demonstration in operational environment, TRL 8: System complete and qualified, and TRL 9: Actual system proven in operational environment, (competitive manufacturing in the case of key enabling technologies; or in space)[ <nowiki> [166]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''NFV: '''See [[#NFV|Network Function Virtualization]]
  
'''Test beds: '''An execution environment configured for testing. May consist of specific hardware, OS, network topology, configuration of the product under test, other application or system software, etc. The Test Plan for a project should enumerate the test beds to be used [ <nowiki>[213]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''NGN: '''See [[#NGN|Next Generation Networks]]
  
'''Things: '''A thing, in the Internet of Things, can be a person with a heart monitor implant, a farm animal with a biochip transponder, an automobile that has built-in sensors to alert the driver when tire pressure is low - or any other natural or man-made object that can be assigned an IP address and provided with the ability to transfer data over a network [ <nowiki>[214]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Physical Layer.''
+
'''NLP: '''See [[#NLP|Natural Language Processing]]
  
'''Transdisciplinary: '''Transdisciplinary Research is defined as research efforts conducted by investigators from different disciplines working jointly to create new conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and translational innovations that integrate and move beyond discipline-specific approaches to address a common problem. Transdisciplinarity requires for creating a unity of intellectual frameworks beyond the disciplinary perspectives, whilst interdisciplinarity integrates knowledge and methods from different disciplines using a real synthesis of approaches. Transdisciplinarity can also be found in the arts and humanities. For example, the Planetary Collegium seeks "the development of transdisciplinary discourse in the convergence of art, science, technology and consciousness research[ <nowiki> [167]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts, Holistic, Research, Innovation.''
+
'''Non-repudiation: '''An aspect of authentication that enables systems to have a high level of mathematical confidence that data, including identifiers, are genuine. This ensures that either a transmitting or receiving party cannot later deny that the request occurred (cannot later “repudiate”) and provides data integrity around the system. This is of particular importance in terms of tracking illegal activities within an IoT system, as it allows for accountability to be enforced. Whether Non-repudiation needs to be enforced under certain circumstances will depend on the particular applications <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef244"/>. <br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#AI|AI]], [[#IoT|IoT]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]]''</small>
  
'''Transparent: '''Network transparency is the situation in which an operating system or other service allows a user to access a resource (such as an application program or data) without the user needing to know, and usually not being aware of, whether the resource is located on the local machine (i.e., the computer which the user is currently using) or on a remote machine (i.e., a computer elsewhere on the network) <nowiki>[215</nowiki>]'''. '''Keywords: ''Network Communication Layer.''
 
  
'''Trust: '''Relationship between two elements, a set of activities and a security policy in which element x trusts element y if and only if x has confidence that y will behave in a well-defined way (with respect to the activities) that does not violate the given security policy [ <nowiki>[216]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Collaboration and Process Layer.''
+
<span id="O">
 
+
'''O'''
''''''Trust Management: '''Trust-management systems provide applications with a standard interface for getting answers to such questions, and provide users with a standard language for writing the policies and credentials that control what is allowed and what isn't [ <nowiki>[217]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Collaboration and Process Layer.''
+
</span>
 
+
----
'''Trusted IoT: '''The development of standards for trust, privacy and end-to-end security for the Internet of Things [ <nowiki>[218]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
 
  
'''Trustworthy: '''Trustworthiness is the demonstrated ability of the trustee to perform a specified action while adhering to a set of stated principles (integrity) and acting in the best interest of the trustor (benevolence) [ <nowiki>[219]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
<span id="OGC">'''OGC SensorThings API model:</span> '''SensorThings API is an open standard providing a unified framework to interconnect IoT sensing [[#Device|devices]], data, and applications over the Web. It is an open standard addressing the syntactic interoperability and semantic interoperability of the IoT <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef339"/> .<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Data Storage|Data Storage]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''U'''
+
'''OMA NGSI: '''RESTful API via HTTP whose purpose is to exchange context information<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef252"/> .<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Urban Farming: '''The growing of crops and raising of livestock within an urban environment for consumption within the local area. Activities include, among others, balcony, rooftop and back garden growing, community gardens, allotment gardening and animal grazing on commons. [ <nowiki>[168]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''oneM2M: '''A partnership project between the leading telecom standardization organizations in Europe, America and Asia. oneM2M is developing specifications for the service layer for machine-to-machine (M2M) communication and the IoT, and aims to provide common services layer to IoT applications and [[#Device|devices]] of different service domain/verticals <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef282"/> .<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Service layer|Service layer]].''</small>
  
 +
'''Open Data: '''Open Data is [[#Data|data]] that can be freely used, re-used and redistributed by anyone subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and share alike<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef134"/> <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef135"/> .<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
 +
'''Open & Agile Smart Cities (OASC): '''OASC was founded in 2015 and is a non-profit, international smart city network that has the goal of creating and shaping the nascent global smart city data and services market. Their vision is to create an open smart city market based on the needs of cities and communities <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef281"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''V'''
+
'''Open source model: '''A decentralized software development model that encouraging open collaboration and peer production with products such as source code, blueprints, and documentation freely available to the public.<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef291"/> .<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Value Chain: '''The value chain refers to all the activities, from receipt of raw materials to post-sales support that together create and increase the value of a product [ <nowiki>[169]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
<span id="OS">'''OS:'''</span> Operating System. See [[#IoTOS|IoT Operating Systems]].
  
'''Value Network: '''The collection of upstream suppliers, downstream&nbsp;channels&nbsp;to&nbsp;market, and ancillary providers that support a common business model within an industry. When would-be disruptors enter into existing value networks, they must adapt their business models to conform to the value network and therefore fail at disruption because they become co-opted [ <nowiki>[170]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
<span id="OT">'''Operation technology (OT): </span>'''Hardware and software that detects or causes a change through the direct monitoring and/or control of physical [[#Device|devices]], processes and events in the enterprise <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef14"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Service layer|Service layer]].''</small>
  
'''Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communication: '''Two-way wireless transmission of information (data) between vehicles and the roadside infrastructure, e.g. embedded equipment in traffic signs/lights. The main components are the on-board unit, roadside equipment and reliable communication channel. V2I communication facilitates local (or regional) traffic coordination. Information on traffic and road conditions can be used to inform, warn or redirect vehicles to a given area. Information from the vehicles can also be collected and redistributed to ensure traffic safety, avoid traffic congestion, improve traffic flow and environment, collect road toll, etc. Interconnectivity between vehicles and the infrastructure play an important role in intelligent transportation systems (ITS) and autonomous driving. High-speed environments and reliable real-time information are important issues for the V2I communication network. Examples on relevant standards are ETSI ITS-G5, IEEE 802.11p, IEEE 1609, and SAE J2735.
+
'''Organisational interoperability: '''Organisational interoperability is associated with the ability of organisations to effectively communicate and transfer information even across different information systems, infrastructures or geographic regions and cultures. See also [[#Interoperability|Interoperability]] <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef327"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication: '''The wireless transmission of information (data) between vehicles. V2V communication facilitates exchange of information and early warnings/control to ensure traffic safety, avoid traffic congestion, improve traffic flow and environment, etc. Interconnectivity between vehicles plays an important role in autonomous driving. High-speed environments and reliable real-time information are important issues for the V2V ad-hoc communication network, also referred to as VANETs (vehicular ad-hoc networks) or IVC (inter-vehicle communication). Examples on relevant standards are ETSI ITS-G5, IEEE 802.11p, IEEE 1609, and SAE J2735
+
'''OT:''' See [[#OT|Operation Technology]]
  
'''Virtual: '''Representation of an asset in the cyberspace. NOTE: In this context, currency can be defined as either a medium of exchange or a property that has value in a specific environment, such as a video game or a financial trading simulation exercise [ <nowiki>[22</nowiki>0]].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Outcome-based Agricultural Services: '''Agricultural services that are able to deliver not only pure agricultural produces and products, but also quantifiable results that matter to their customers such as crop yield, energy saved, machine uptime, and carbon footprint. Such outcome-based services are possible thanks to the use of technology such as IoT which permits the ability to monitor and control farm processes <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef16"/> . <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]], [[#Farming|Farming]].''</small>
  
''''''Virtual Food Chains: '''The digital representation (virtual) of a supply chain, enabled by the use of digital technologies such as IoT. The use of virtual food chains enables the application of virtual chain management techniques such as advanced remote planning, re-planning, monitoring and control of the different elements and processes involved across the chain [ <nowiki>[16]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Collaboration and Process Layer, Agrifood.''
 
  
'''Virtual Manufacturing: '''A virtual manufacturing system is a computer system that can produce similar information concerning manufacturing system structure, states and behaviours as one can observe in the real manufacturing systems it represents [ <nowiki>[221]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Processing Layer.''
+
<span id="P">
 +
'''P'''
 +
</span>
 +
----
  
'''Virtual Reality (VR): '''Virtual Reality provides a computer-generated 3D environment that surrounds a user and responds to that individual’s actions in a natural way, usually through immersive head-mounted displays and head tracking. Gloves providing hand-tracking and haptic (touch sensitive) feedback may be used as well. Room-based systems provide a 3D experience for multiple participants; however, they are more limited in their interaction capabilities [ <nowiki>[14]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Application Layer, Physical Layer.''
+
'''Paradigm: '''A paradigm is a standard, perspective, or set of ideas. A paradigm is a way of looking at something <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef136"/> . <br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Virtualisation: '''The process of changing something that exists in reality into a virtual version. The abstraction of information technology (IT) resources that masks the physical nature and boundaries of those resources from resource users. An IT resource can be servers, clients, storage, networks, applications or operating systems. Essentially, any IT building block can potentially be abstracted from resource users [ <nowiki>[116]</nowiki>] [ <nowiki>[14]</nowiki>].''' '''Keywords: ''Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Personal data: '''‘personal data’ means any information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person (‘data subject’); an identifiable natural person is one who can be identified, directly or indirectly, in particular by reference to an identifier such as a name, an identification number, location data, an online identifier or to one or more factors specific to the physical, physiological, genetic, mental, economic, cultural or social identity of that natural person <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef320"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
 +
'''Personal data breach: '''‘personal data breach’ means a breach of security leading to the accidental or unlawful destruction, loss, alteration, unauthorised disclosure of, or access to, personal data transmitted, stored or otherwise processed <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef307"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
 +
'''Personalized Nutrition: '''Personalized nutrition can be defined as developing unique nutrition guidelines for each individual. Precision nutrition seeks to develop effective approaches based on the combination of an individual's genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef137"/> . <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''W'''
+
'''Pervasive: '''Spreading or spread throughout<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef138"/> . <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
'''Wearables: '''Wearable refers to all electronic devices able to be worn on the human body using implants or through the use of clothing and accessories. They are often designed to track activity and/or health-related measurements. They are IoT devices optimized to be ultra-low cost, size and power. They are thought to constantly interact with the user[ <nowiki> [171]</nowiki>]. Keywords: ''Physical Layer, Things, Hardware, Miniaturization.''
+
'''Physical: '''Physical refers to tangible objects that are perceived through the senses. Within IoT it refers to the hardware like sensors, [[#Device|devices]] and networking gear.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Physical layer|Physical layer]].''</small>
  
'''Wellness: '''The optimal state of health of individuals and groups. There are two focal concerns: the realization of the fullest potential of an individual physically, psychologically, socially, spiritually and economically; and the fulfilment of one's expected role in the family, community, place of worship, workplace and other settings [ <nowiki>[1</nowiki>72]]. ''Keywords: Other cross-cutting concepts.''
+
'''Platforms: '''A platform is a specific combination of hardware and operating system and/or compiler. See also  [[#IoTP|IoT Platforms]] <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef139"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Abstractionlayer|Abstraction Layer]]''</small>
  
 +
<span id="Policy">'''Policy and regulations: </span>'''Technology policy is a form of 'active industrial policy', and effectively argues, based on the empirical facts of technological development as observed across various societies, industries and time periods,&nbsp;that markets rarely decide industrial fortunes in and of their own and state-intervention or support is required to overcome standard cases of market-failure (which may include, for example, under-funding of Research & Development in highly competitive markets) <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef185"/>.<br/> <small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
 +
'''Policy on IoT: '''A document that provides a comprehensive guide to helping an organization promote the development of IoT and/or deal with the complex issues related to that development <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef140"/> .<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
 +
'''Precision Agriculture: '''Precision Agriculture is a whole-farm management approach using information technology, satellite positioning (GNSS) [[#Data|Data]], remote sensing and proximal data gathering. These technologies have the goal of optimising returns on inputs whilst potentially reducing environmental impact <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef141"/> . <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
 +
'''Precision farming: '''Precision [[#Farming|farming]] is farm management at a level that allows inputs to be tailored to variable conditions across short distances in a single field <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef142"/> . <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
=Conclusions=
+
'''Predictive Maintenance: '''Also called condition-based maintenance, predictive maintenance is a maintenance [[#Policy|policy]] that sets out the regular monitoring of machine and equipment conditions to better understand their operating condition and thus be able to schedule maintenance interventions only when they are really needed. Maintenance interventions are programmed in real-time avoiding unforeseen downtime and their related negative implications. The integration of digital technologies such as IoT in machinery and equipment facilitates predictive maintenance <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef16"/> . <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]], [[#Industry|industry]].''</small>
  
The present deliverable compiles a glossary of about 250 terms related to the activities undertaken across the seven projects of the IoT Large Scale Pilots Programme. This handbook has been designed as a contribution that the CREATE-IoT project provides to the community of the IoT Large Scale Pilots Programme with the goal to facilitate a common terminology ground as basis for cross-fertilization among all projects of the Programme.
+
'''Preventive Maintenance: '''Time-driven maintenance [[#Policy|policy]] that seeks to correctly predict the optimal times of maintenance interventions in order to anticipate the failure of complex systems. Preventive maintenance results in maintenance interventions scheduled based on the mean-time-to-failure statistic<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef16"/> .<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]], [[#Industry|Industry]].''</small>
  
This deliverable has not been conceived as an input to any specific WP or Task of the CREATE-IoT project. Rather, this handbook will be considered by the whole consortium members as a tool to help harmonize the terminology used during the project’s lifetime and across all WPs, Tasks and deliverables produced until the end of the project.
+
<span id="Privacy">'''Privacy: '''Privacy refers to a person's right to control access to his or her personal [[#Data|data]] and be free from intrusion, misuse or disclosure by third parties. This definition extends the right of a person to control what is and isn't available on the internet. In the United States of America, privacy is used to refer to Data Protection <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef143"/>. <br/> <small>Keywords:[[#AI|AI]],[[#IoT|IoT]]''</small>
  
 +
'''Printed Circuit: '''A circuit for electronic apparatus made by depositing conductive material in continuous paths from terminal to terminal on an insulating surface <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef186"/> . <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Physical layer|Physical layer]].''</small>
  
 +
'''Privacy-by-default: '''Obligation under Art. 25 of the GDPR - By default, only personal data that are essential to the stated purpose of each process shall be processed and that personal data are not made accessible without the individual’s intervention to an indefinite number of natural persons <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef144"/>.
  
 +
'''Privacy-by-design: '''Obligation under Art.25 of the GDPR - Privacy should be taken into account throughout the entire engineering process from the earliest design stages to the operation of the productive system i.e. that [[#Data|data]] protection safeguards (also known as Privacy Enhancing Technologies (PETs)) should be built into products and services from the earliest stage of development <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef145"/>
  
 +
'''Proactive Maintenance: '''In opposition to corrective (reactive) maintenance, proactive maintenance seeks to detect and correct the root cause aberrations of failure (unstable operating conditions that will lead to actual failure unless they are corrected)<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef146"/> .<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
 +
'''Processing: '''‘processing’ means any operation or set of operations which is performed on personal data or on sets of personal data, whether or not by automated means, such as collection, recording, organisation, structuring, storage, adaptation or alteration, retrieval, consultation, use, disclosure by transmission, dissemination or otherwise making available, alignment or combination, restriction, erasure or destruction <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef308"/> .<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
 +
'''Production Systems: '''A manufacturing subsystem that includes all functions required to design, produce, distribute, and service a manufactured product <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef147"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]].''</small>
  
=References=
+
'''Programme: '''A plan of activities to be done or things to be achieved <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef148"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
 +
'''Profiling: '''‘profiling’ means any form of automated processing of personal data consisting of the use of personal data to evaluate certain personal aspects relating to a natural person, in particular to analyse or predict aspects concerning that natural person’s performance at work, economic situation, health, personal preferences, interests, reliability, behaviour, location or movements <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef321"/> .<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
 +
'''Prosumer: '''In the 1980 book, The Third Wave, futurologist Alvin Toffler coined the term "prosumer" when he predicted that the role of producers and consumers would begin to blur and merge. George Ritzer and Nathan Jurgenson, in a widely-cited article, claim that prosumption has become a salient characteristic of Web 2.0. Prosumers create value for companies without receiving wages. Sparked by technology and led by global consumer culture's dominance, 21st-century consumption has been radically transformed; co-creation and prosumption being some of its most representative examples.''' '''The prosumer actively works to produce the services and goods they buy and consume. For example: self-check-outs at the supermarket, the DIY furniture of Ikea, or online order and delivery services such as E-bay or Amazon. In fact, with the huge help of the Internet, most prosumption is happening in the online world. The most common example is Wikipedia where the users can generate, edit, update and comment on articles.''' '''Nevertheless, it is not enough to create stimulating contexts and environments for consumers to take an active role. For prosumption to be integrated in technological development in IoT at a significant level, commitment of prosumers is key. Commitment is a limited resource in a context where “consumer fatigue” – consumers frustrated by technological solutions that they no longer understand and whose utility they no longer perceive – is an encompassing trend in consumer [[#Research|research]]<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef149"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef150"/> <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef151"/> <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef152"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
{| class="prettytable"
+
'''Public-Private Partnership (PPP): '''PPP is a long-term agreement, cooperation, and collaboration between two or more public and private sectors. In EU the PPPs are based on roadmaps for research and innovation activities which are the result of an open consultation process. <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef273"/> .<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|-
 
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[1] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
 
ITU Radiocommunication Sector. Online at:  [http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-R http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-R]
 
  
|-
+
=== Q-S ===
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[2] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
<span id="Q">
Radio Spectrum Policy Group. Online at:  [http://rspg-spectrum.eu/ http://rspg-spectrum.eu]
+
'''Q'''
 +
</span>
 +
----
  
|-
+
'''QoS: '''See [[#QoS|Quality of Service]]
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[3] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
'''QR Codes: '''A QR code is a type of matrix (or bi-dimensional, BiDi) barcodes. Barcodes are machine-readable, optical labels including relevant information about the object to which it is attached. A QR code can encode its information using four different and standardized modes, namely kanji, alphanumeric, numeric and byte/binary, although extensions can also be usedQR codes are specifically designed for cameras to read. It is commonly presented as small black squares arranged in a square grid on a white background. QR codes are especially interesting for IoT as they enable [[#Device|device]] identification and interaction with other devices or human users <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef153"/> . <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Physical layer|Physical layer]].''</small>
The 5G Infrastructure Public Private partnership. Online at: [https://5g-ppp.eu/ https://5g-ppp.eu]
 
  
|-
+
'''Quantum computers: '''Quantum computers are different from transistor-based computers and use atomic quantum states to effect computation. Data are held in quantum bits (qubits), which can hold all possible states simultaneously (superposition) and give the ability to operate exponentially fast due to increased word length. Quantum bits affect each other even when physically separated (entanglement). Achieving both superposition and entanglement is extremely challenging<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef274"/> .<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[4] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
<span id="QoS">'''Quality of Service (QoS):</span> '''Quality of Service refers to the measurement of the performance, usually observed user-side, of services such as telephony, [[#Cloud|Cloud]], computer or IoT networks. This assessment includes several aspects such as latency, error rate, throughput and availability. Quality of Service is relevant to any IoT network whose applications are oriented toward interactions with humans. They should perceive smooth communication and critical or real-time operations where delays and error rates should be minimized <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef106"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Network communication layer|Network communication layer]].''</small>
Business Dictionary, "''Accountability''". Online at:  [http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/accountability.html http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/accountability.html]
 
  
|-
+
'''Quality of Experience (QoE): '''A measure of the overall level of customer satisfaction with the network as measured by various success factors including ease of use, reliability, security, and cost. .<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[5] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
<span id="R">
K. Karpinska, P. Dykstra, "''The Active Ageing Index and its extension to the regional level''" European Union, 2015.
+
'''R'''
 +
</span>
 +
----
  
|-
+
'''Radio Access Network (RAN): '''The part of the telecommunications network that connects user equipment to other parts of a mobile network via a radio connection. Connects user equipment to the [[#core network|core network]].<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[6] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
'''Radio Access Technology (RAT): '''The underlying physical connection method for a radio-based communication network. Modern phones may support several RATs in one device such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, NFC (Near-Field Communications), and 3G, 4G or LTE, and 5G.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
J. H. Zheng and W. R. Tan, "''An Adaptive Gateway for Smart Home''". Online at:  [http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6643370/ http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6643370/]
 
  
|-
+
'''RAMI: '''RAMI 4.0 stands for Reference Architectural Model Industrie 4.0. RAMI 4.0 is a service-oriented architecture that combines all elements and IT components using a layer and life cycle model. RAMI 4.0 breaks down complex processes into easy-to-grasp packages along three dimensions: hierarchy levels (related to the systems, machines and products present in the factory), the product life cycle and a layered architecture <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef154"/> .<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Service layer|Service layer]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[7] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
'''Reasonable: '''Reasonable refers mainly to the licensing rates. According to some, a reasonable licensing rate is a rate charged on licenses which would not result in an unreasonable aggregate rate if all licensees were charged a similar rate <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef187"/> .<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
European Commission, "''Ageing Well in the Information Society''" in COM, 2007.
 
  
|-
+
'''Reference Architecture Model: '''A reference model that provides an architectural template solution for a particular domain. Concerning IoT, there is a need to standardize a reference architecture model in order to support the interoperability in IoT. In this context, the IoT platforms are the highest, most generalized layer of intelligence and user interface that ties together connected [[#device|devices]] and web-based services. They collectively define a reference architecture model for IoT. A wide range of technologies, communication protocols, layers, dimensions and standards are taken into consideration. An example of a reference architecture model initiative is Industrie 4.0 (RAMI). See also [[#ARC|Architecture]] and [[#I4|Industrie 4.0]] <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef155"/> <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef86"/> .<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[8] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
<span id="Regulation">'''Regulation :''' Regulations can refer to either specific European Law or a more general description. In European Law, a regulation is a legal act adopted by the European institutions and are legally binding with immediate application in all member states providing homogenous application of EU law across states. Generally, a regulation is the application of a set of standards, norms and/or responsibilities overseen by an external body (i.e. government) or internally (e.g. [[#Industry|industry]] body)to ensure the maintenance of quality or proper functioning of a product, service or market and to support consistency across jurisdictions <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef156"/> <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef157"/>. Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]]
Wikipedia, "''Agile software development''" 10 September 2017. Online at:  [https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Agile_software_development&oldid=799886528 https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Agile_software_development&oldid=799886528]<nowiki> [Accessed 13 September 2017].</nowiki>
 
  
|-
+
'''Reliability: '''Enables IoT systems to operate without systems outages and regular human intervention. Reliability is essential for productivity and is a key prerequisite for AI systems that are put into continuous operation with short maintenance time in mission-critical production environments <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef237"/>. <br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#AI|AI]],[[#IOT|IOT]]''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[9] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
'''Research: '''Systematic investigative process employed to increase or revise current knowledge by discovering new facts. It is divided into two general categories:''' '''''(i)''''' '''Basic [[#Research|research]] is inquiry aimed at increasing scientific knowledge. ''(ii) ''Applied research is effort aimed at using basic researchfor solving problems or developing new processes, products, or techniques <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef188"/> '''.<br/> <small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
P. Kunz. "''Ambient Assisted Living''" 2011. Online at:  <nowiki>www.ercim.eu</nowiki>.
 
  
|-
+
'''Resilience: '''Enables IoT with embedded AI to always operate in stable states, including to return to such states after failures. Resilience is essential for their safe support for our digital economy. In the future, they should even be able to detect failure and initiate measures for compensating it <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef238"/>. See also [[#AI|AI]] and [[#IoT|IoT]]<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]]''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[10] </nowiki></div>
 
  
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+
'''Resource Description Framework (RDF): '''Resource Description Framework (RDF)<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef332"/> '''.<br/> <small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
D. J. Cook, J. C. Augusto and V. R. Jakkula, "''Ambient intelligence: Technologies, applications, and opportunities"''. Online at: [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S157411920900025X http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S157411920900025X]
 
  
|-
+
'''Resource virtualization: '''Resource virtualization consists in either partitioning a single physical resource into multiple virtual resources or aggregating multiple physical resources into one virtual resource <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef189"/>.<br/> <small>Keywords: '[[#Abstractionlayer|Abstraction Layer]]'</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[11] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
'''Reverse Proxy Server (RPX): '''An RPX is a type of proxy server, typically sits behind a firewall and directs requests to the back-end server. A reverse proxy ensures the flow of network traffic between clients and servers. It also ensures that multiple servers can be accessed from a single URL regardless of the structure of local area network. An RPX can sit in front of back-end servers and distribute client requests across a group of servers to maximize speed and capacity utilization, ensuring that no single server is overloaded, thus maintaining the performance. If a server goes down, the load balancer redirects traffic to the remaining online servers.<br/> <small>Keywords: '[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]]'</small>
ICanLocalize. "''Localization for Mobile Apps - a Refresher''". Online at:  [https://www.icanlocalize.com/site/2013/04/localization-for-mobile-apps-a-refresher/ https://www.icanlocalize.com/site/2013/04/localization-for-mobile-apps-a-refresher/]
 
  
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+
'''RFID: '''RFID stands for Radio Frequency identification and refers to a system of storing and retrieving [[#Data|data]] wirelessly using [[#Tags|tags]], smart cards or RFID transponders. It uses electromagnetic fields to identify tags attached to objects which should be brought into proximity of a reader with a typical coverage of a couple of centimetres. tags can be passive (unpowered and just readable when close enough) or active (battery powered and with extended coverage). RFID is commonly embedded into IoT applications and deployments as an easy way to identify [[#Device|devices]] and/or interact with humans <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef158"/> <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef159"/> . <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Physical layer|Physical layer]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[12] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
'''Risk: '''Potential that a given threat will exploit vulnerabilities of an asset or group of assets to cause loss or damage to the assets <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef190"/> .<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
K. GUNNARSDÓTTIR, M. ARRIBAS-AYLLON. "''Ambient Intelligence: A narrative in search of users''" Lancaster University and SOCSI, 2012.  
 
  
|-
+
'''Robotics: '''Branch of science that deals with making and using robots.<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef191"/>  <br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[13] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
'''Roadside unit (RSU): '''RSUs are computing and communication equipment located on the roadside and provide connectivity support to the passing vehicles. <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef322"/> .<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Automotive|Automotive]],[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
Wikipedia, "''Application Programming Interface''" 28 August 2017. Online at:  [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Application_programming_interface https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Application_programming_interface]
 
  
|-
+
<span id="RT">'''Robotic things:</span> '''See [[#IoRT|Internet of Robotic things (IoRT)]]
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[14] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
 
Gartner Inc. Online at:  [http://www.gartner.com/it-glossary http://www.gartner.com/it-glossary]
 
  
|-
+
<span id="S">
|
+
'''S'''
<div align="right"><nowiki>[15] </nowiki></div>
+
</span>
 +
----
  
|
+
'''Scalability: '''An attribute that describes the ability of a process, network, software or organization to grow and manage increased demand. Scalability is often a sign of stability and competitiveness, as it means the network, system, software or organization is ready to handle the influx of demand, increased productivity, trends, changing needs and even presence or introduction of new competitors.<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef292"/> .<br/> <small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
IEEE Standard Association. "''IoT Architecture - Internet of Things (IoT) Architecture''" in Standard development working group.
 
  
|-
+
'''SCRAL: '''The SCRAL is an adaptation layer that provides a REST-based uniform and transparent access to physical [[#Device|devices]], systems and services for monitoring and actuation purposes.<br/> <small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[16] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
'''Safety: '''In IT systems, it refers to functional safety (in the physical not digital dimensions) <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef192"/>. <br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#AI|AI]],[[#IoT|IoT]]''</small>
O. Vermesan and P. Friess. "''Digitising the Industry - Internet of Things Connecting the Physical, Digital and Virtual Worlds''" in River Publishers, 2016.
 
  
|-
+
'''SDN: '''See [[#SDN|Software Defined Network]]
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[17] </nowiki></div>
 
  
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+
'''Seamless integration: '''The process where a new module or feature of an application or hardware is added or integrated without resulting in any discernable errors or complications.<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef262"/> .<br/> <small>Keywords: ''[[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]].''</small>
M. Bijvoet. "''Art as Enquiry: Toward New Collaborations between Art, Science and Technology''". Peter Lang Pub Inc., New York, 1997.  
 
  
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+
'''Secure Update: '''Enables IoT systems and [[#Device|devices]] to install new firmware from authorized sources without the firmware being compromised. Software updates are critical processes and are susceptible to a number of threats and attacks. During an update, the device receives the firmware wirelessly and installs it, removing the previous version. However, to reassure that the process is being done properly and securely, the sender of the firmware should be verified as trusted, the firmware should be validated as not compromised, the initial security keys should be protected, etc. Additionally, depending on the services that the device offers, the downtime during a firmware update may need to be kept at a minimum. If not properly protected, devices may be open to manipulation, typically through the installation of malicious code on a device <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef246"/>.<small> Keywords: ''[[#AI|AI]],[[#IoT|IoT]]''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[18] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
'''Security-by-Default: '''A system is secure by default when the default settings put the system in a secure state. To prevent unauthorized physical access, damage and interference to the organization's information and information processing facilities, security perimeters should be defined and used to protect areas that contain either sensitive or critical information and information processing facilities<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef342"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Security|Security]].''</small>
L. Duxbury, E. Grierson, D. Waite. "''Thinking Through Practice: Art as Research in the Academy''". RMIT Publishing, 1997.  
 
  
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+
'''Security-by-Design: '''The capability of an ICT product to protect information and [[#Data|data]] so that unauthorised persons or systems cannot read or modify them and authorised persons or systems are not denied access to them<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef193"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[19] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
'''Security Fusion Node: '''Security Fusion Node is a lightweight multithreaded REST API responsible for forwarding messages from the edge up to the cloud, and adding additional information where required. The Security Fusion Node acts as an interface between the outputs of the algorithms and the higher-level services. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
L. Girão, J.P. Valgaeren, E. Van Passel. "''Activities Linking ICT and Art: Past Experience – Future Activities. A study prepared for the European Commission DG Communications Networks, Content & Technology''” EU Commission Final Report, 2013. Online at:  [http://ec.europa.eu/newsroom/dae/document.cfm?doc_id=9122 http://ec.europa.eu/newsroom/dae/document.cfm?doc_id=9122]
 
  
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+
'''Semantic interoperability: '''Semantic interoperability is associated with shared understanding of the meaning of the exchanged content/ information). (See also [[#Interoperability|Interoperability]]).<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef328"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[20] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
'''Self-healing: '''Self-healing can be defined as the property that enables a system to perceive that it is not operating correctly and, without (or with) human intervention, make the necessary adjustments to restore itself to normality <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef194"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
H. Borgdorff. "''The Production of Knowledge in Artistic Research - The Routledge Companion to Research in the Arts''". 2011.  
 
  
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+
'''Self-optimizing: '''The conceivable development of information technology will enable mechatronic systems with inherent partial intelligence. We call this kind of systems self-optimizing <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef195"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[21] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
'''Self-protecting: '''Self-protecting software systems are a class of autonomic systems capable of detecting and mitigating security threats at runtime <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef196"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
J. H. Brown. "''From precision farming to autonomous farming: How commodity technologies enable revolutionary impact''". Online at: [http://robohub.org/from-precision-farming-to-autonomous-farming-how-commodity-technologies-enable-revolutionary-impact/ http://robohub.org/from-precision-farming-to-autonomous-farming-how-commodity-technologies-enable-revolutionary-impact/]
 
  
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+
'''Services: '''Services are intangible products provided to a customer or user enabling them to achieve a task or goal.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[22] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
'''Service provider: '''A person or another entity that has the overall responsibility for the provision of a service or a set of services to the users and for negotiating network capabilities associated with the service(s) he/she provides <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef297"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
Business Dictionary, "''Availability''". Online at:  [http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/availability.html http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/availability.html]
 
  
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+
'''Silver economy: '''Existing and emerging economic opportunities associated with the growing public and consumer expenditure related to population ageing and the specific needs of the population over 50 <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef160"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[23] </nowiki></div>
 
  
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+
'''Smart Buildings: '''Smart building encompass many things, but, the primary goal is the use of building technology systems to enable enhanced services and the efficient operation of a building for the betterment of its occupants and building management. The main drivers of smart buildings are the positive financial impacts of integrated system, energy conservation, greater systems functionality, and the continuing evolution of technology <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef197"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
Technopedia Definition, "Barcode". Online at: [https://www.techopedia.com/definition/24410/bar-code https://www.techopedia.com/definition/24410/bar-code]
 
  
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+
'''Smart City: '''Smart city refers to those [[#Cities|Cities]] integrating Information Technologies together with IoT technology to gather and monitor [[#Data|data]] from its assets (including hospitals, power plants, transportation systems, local information systems and water supply networks) and citizens. The data gathered is used to optimize the services being monitored and enhance quality of life for all citizens <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef161"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]], [[#Applications|Applications]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[24] </nowiki></div>
 
  
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+
'''Smart Clothing: '''Life simulation system which has perception and feedback of clothing. Smart clothing can sense changes in internal and external environmental conditions, as well as make real-time or near-time self-report feedback<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef198"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
A. F. Griffith. "''Improving project system performance through benchmarking''", Paper presented at PMI® Global Congress, 2006.
 
  
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+
'''Smart energy: '''Smart energy system is defined as an approach in which smart electricity, thermal and gas grids are combined and coordinated to identify synergies between them in order to achieve and optimal solution for each individual sector as well as for the overall energy system <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef199"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[25] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
'''Smart Environments: '''Any space where ubiquitous technology informs the learning process in an unobtrusive, social or collaborative manner<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef200"/>.<br/> <small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
A. Chabba. RESET - Digital for good. "''Blue Economy! What is it?".'' Online at:  [https://en.reset.org/blog/blue-economy-what-it https://en.reset.org/blog/blue-economy-what-it]
 
  
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+
'''Smart Farming: '''Smart farming techniques help produce more food from fewer resources, including soil, water, fertilisers, pesticides and human effort. Predictive [[#Analytics|Analytics]] helps improve yields, reduce crop diseases and optimise resource utilisation. Smart [[#Farming|farming]] concept brings together [[#Research|research]]es, farms and [[#Industry|industry]] to produce food smarter <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef201"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[26] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
'''Smart Grid: '''The Smart Grid is the evolution of the current electrical grid. The electricity network is based on digital technology that is used to supply electricity to consumers via two-way digital communication. The Smart Grid allows for monitoring, analysis, control and communication to help improve efficiency, reduce energy consumption and cost, and maximize the transparency and reliability of the energy supply chain. <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef275"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
J. F. Moore. “''The Death of Competition: Leadership and Strategy in the Age of Business Ecosystems''”, HarperBusiness, 1996, p. 297.
 
  
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+
'''Smart Health: '''The technology that leads to better diagnostic tools, better treatment for patients, and [[#Device|devices] that improve the quality of life for anyone and everyone<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef202"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[27] </nowiki></div>
 
  
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+
'''Smart Homes: '''Smart Home technology has become the popular name for the integration of telematics into the electrical installation of the home <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef203"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]].''</small>
A. Osterwalder, Y. Pigneur, "''Business Model Generation''" John Wiley & Sons, 2010.  
 
  
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+
'''Smart living: '''Smart living refers to improving quality of life by transforming environments to become more intelligent and adaptable to users <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef204"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[28] </nowiki></div>
 
  
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+
'''Smart living environments: '''A physical world that is richly and invisibly interwoven with sensors, actuators, displays, and computational elements, embedded seamlessly in the everyday objects of our lives, and connected through a continuous network<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef205"/>.<br/> <small>Keywords: ''[[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]].''</small>
A. Murray, K. Skene, K. Haynes, "''The circular economy: An interdisciplinary exploration of the concept and application in a global context''" Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 140, no. 3, pp. 369-380, 2017.  
 
  
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+
<span id="SM">'''Smart Manufacturing:</span> '''Smart manufacturing is a broad category of manufacturing with the goal of optimizing concept generation, production, and product transaction. While manufacturing can be defined as the multi-phase process of creating a product out of raw materials, smart manufacturing is a subset that employs computer control and high levels of adaptability. Smart manufacturing aims to take advantage of advanced information and manufacturing technologies to enable flexibility in physical processes to address a dynamic and global market. There is increased workforce training for taking advantage of the increased flexibility of this technology instead of the specific tasks that are customary in traditional manufacturing <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef162"/>. <br/><small>Keywords:'' [[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[29] </nowiki></div>
 
  
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+
'''Smart Mobility: '''Technology that enables Intelligent Transport Systems to create highly efficient, uninterrupted and reliable transportation networks with the goal to build sustainable infrastructure for future generations <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef206"/> <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
Y.-C. Chen. "''Citizen-centric e-government services: Understanding integrated citizen service information systems''" Social Science Computer Review, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 427-442, 2010.  
 
  
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+
'''Smart Objects: '''A smart object is an item equipped with a form of sensor or actuator, a tiny microprocessor, a communication [[#Device|device]], and a power source <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef207"/>.<br/> <small>Keywords: ''[[#Physical layer|Physical layer]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[30] </nowiki></div>
 
  
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+
'''Smart sensor: '''An advanced platform with onboard technologies such as microprocessors, storage, diagnostics, and connectivity tools that transform traditional feedback signals into true digital insights. Smart sensors can provide the timely and valuable data underpinnings to power analytical insights that can in turn drive improvements in cost, performance, or customer experience <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef261"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
B. P. Rao, A. Mittal, P. Saluia, S. V. Sharma, "''Cloud computing for Internet of Things & sensing based applications. In Sensing Technology (ICST)''" in Sixth International Conference, 2012.
 
  
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+
'''Smart Watch: '''A smartwatch is a wearable computer in the form of a wristwatch; modern smartwatches provide a local touchscreen interface for daily use, while an associated smartphone app provides for management and telemetry <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef253"/>.<br/> <small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[31] </nowiki></div>
 
  
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+
'''Smart Water Management: '''Utility system for water supply which is characterized by the use of communication networks and the control of grid components and loads <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef208"/>.<br/> <small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
N. Antonopoulos, L. Gillam, "''Cloud computing. London: Springer''" 2010.  
 
  
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+
'''Social innovation: '''Social innovations are new ideas that meet social needs, create social relationships and form new collaborations. A considerable number of technology-based artworks, transformed into products and services, were conceived to be products from conception; not necessarily due to potential commercial reasons but instead were designed so as to have an impact on society. In this context, social [[#Innovation|innovation]] is a relevant aspect in IoT. Projects such as the open hardware platform Arduino show how artistic practice can lie at the basis of later technological developments with a tangible economic and societal impact. They have a concrete impact on the growth and jobs objective by enabling more people to experiment with open source digital technology. This exponentiates the probability of the creation of new products and services and contributes to socially-driven innovation processes which distinguish the EU from other players in the global market <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef163"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef19"/>.<br/> <small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[32] </nowiki></div>
 
  
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+
'''Sound Field Control System: '''The Sound Field Control System (SFC) is a loudspeaker (secondary source) array driven by sensibly calculated multi-channel signals based on a pre-obtained sound propagation model <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef163"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef19"/>.<br/> <small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
M. Aazam, I. Khan, A. A. Alsaffar, E. N. Huh. "''Cloud of Things: Integrating Internet of Things and cloud computing and the issues involved''" Sciences and Technology (IBCAST), pp. 414-419, 11 January 2014.  
 
  
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+
<span id="SDN">'''Software Defined Network: </span>'''Novel network paradigm that separates each network services from its point of attachment to the network, creating a far more dynamic, flexible, automated, and manageable architecture. It is an emerging architecture that is dynamic, manageable, cost-effective, and adaptable, making it ideal for the high-bandwidth, dynamic nature of today’s applications <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef209"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Network communication layer|Network communication layer]]''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[33] </nowiki></div>
 
  
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+
'''Standardisation: '''See [[#ST|Standard]]
UNIFY-IoT, "Act''ivities Fostering Value Co-creation: Interim Report''" 2017.
 
  
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+
'''Stakeholder: '''An individual or organization that is affected by the development or implementation of a project <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef297"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[34] </nowiki></div>
 
  
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+
'''Standard developing organization (SDO): '''SDOs are standards bodies whose primary activities are developing, coordinating, promulgating, revising, amending, reissuing, interpreting, or otherwise producing standards <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef323"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#ST|Standard]],[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
A. Shankar, H. Cherrier, R. Canniford. "''Consumer empowerment: a Foucauldian interpretation''" European Journal of Marketing, vol. 40, no. 9/10, pp. 1013-1030.  
 
  
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+
'''State-of-the-art (SOTA): '''SOTA refers to the highest level of development achieved at a particular time regarding [[#Device|devices]], techniques, methodologies, scientific fields, etc <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef275"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[35] </nowiki></div>
 
  
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+
<span id="STARTS">'''STARTS: '''</span>The European Commission has launched a new initiative, (S+T)*ARTS=STARTS - innovation at the nexus of Science, Technology and the ARTS. STARTS funds and encourages collaboration of the Arts with Technology by, for instance, including artists in H2020. The mission of STARTS is to bring artists into innovation. An innovation that is much more than the sum of its parts and goes well beyond: Holistic innovation.''' '''In fact, in order to create value for citizens, industry has to think more holistically about technologies and services that put the human in the centre. Indeed, digital transformation of industry and society is already naturally uniting science and engineering with design and artistic approaches. This can be seen in many areas where art and technology naturally collaborate like in urban development or in new media like virtual and augmented reality. In this context, the Arts gain prominence as catalysts for an efficient conversion of S&T knowledge into radical novel products, services, and processes <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef165"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
D. Bohm. On Creativity, 2014, CBInsights ed., Routledge Classics IoT Periodic Table, 1998.  
 
  
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+
'''Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda (SRIA): '''The purpose of the SRIA is to lay down guiding principles and identify research priorities for the future, while making them openly accessible to the various stakeholder groups including the policy makers, regulatory agencies, researchers, end-users, and public <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef276"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[36] </nowiki></div>
 
  
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+
'''Supply Chain Management: '''The management of the flow of goods and services; defined as the "design, planning, execution, control, and monitoring of supply-chain activities with the objective of creating net value, building a competitive infrastructure, leveraging worldwide logistics, synchronizing supply with demand and measuring performance globally <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef277"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
Q. Wu. "''Cognitive Internet of Things: A New Paradigm beyond Connection''" IEEE Journal of Internet of Things, 2014.  
 
  
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+
'''Syntactic interoperability: '''Syntactic interoperability is usually associated with data formats and encodings (e.g., XML, JSON and CSV) along with techniques for compressing them. See also [[#Interoperability|Interoperability]]<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef329"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[37] </nowiki></div>
 
  
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+
'''Swarm intelligence (SI): '''This concept can be looked at as a subfield of artificial intelligence (AI) and is based on collective behaviour and interaction of decentralized and self-organized systems inspired by nature ("swarm of individuals"). With enhanced SI, IoT objects are capable of cooperating and sharing resources efficiently (by a set of algorithms). This allows for solving numerous IoT optimization challenges, which are otherwise difficult to implement due to the large resources required. Examples of IoT applications may be optimization of node localization, signal coverage, and transmission route <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef16"/>.<br/> <small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
S. Matthews. "''What is cognitive IoT''?" IBM Big Data & Analytics Hub, March 2016.
 
  
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+
'''Swarm technologies: '''The technologies that provide swarm intelligence (SI). The swarm technologies needed are related to the applications. Together with the artificial intelligence, robotics, and machine learning; the swarm technologies are the technologies that will provide the next phase of development of IoT applications<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef16"/>.<br/>
|
+
<small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
<div align="right"><nowiki>[38] </nowiki></div>
 
  
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+
'''Systems of systems: '''Combination of systems (being individually composed of interacting elements) organized to achieve one or more stated purposes. ''Note 1'': A system may be considered as a product and/or as the services it provides.''' '''''Note 2'': In practice, the interpretation of its meaning is frequently clarified by the use of an associative noun, e.g. aircraft system <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef210"/>.<br/>
A. Gunasekaran, E.W.T Ngai. "''Information systems in supply chain integration and management''" European Journal of Operational Research, vol. 159, no. 2, pp. 269-295, 2004.  
+
<small>Keywords: ''[[#Collaboration and Process Layer|Collaboration and Process Layer]].''</small>
  
|-
 
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[39] </nowiki></div>
 
  
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+
=== T-Z ===
Cambridge Dictionary, "Connectivity,". Online at:  [http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/connectivity http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/connectivity]
 
  
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+
<span id="T">
|
+
'''T'''
<div align="right"><nowiki>[40] </nowiki></div>
+
</span>
 +
----
  
|
+
'''Tactile IoT/IIoT:'''The Tactile IoT/IIoT is a shift in the collaborative paradigm, adding human-centred perspective and sensing/actuating capabilities transported over the network to communications modalities, so that people and machines no longer need to be physically close to the systems they operate or interact with as they can be controlled remotely. Tactile IoT/IIoT combines ultra-low latency with extremely high avail- ability, reliability and security and enables humans and machines to interact with their environment, in real-time, using haptic interaction with visual feedback, while on the move and within a certain spatial communication range.
<nowiki>BusinessDictionary.com</nowiki>, "Consumer awareness" 04 September 2017. Online at:  [http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/consumer-awareness.html http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/consumer-awareness.html]
+
The Tactile IoT/IIoT provides the capabilities to enable the delivery of real-time control and physical (haptic) experiences remotely. The capabilities of the Tactile IoT/IIoT support the creation of a personal spatial safety zone, which is able to interact with nearby objects also connected to the Tactile IoT/IIoT. If applied to traffic, in the long term, this safety zone will be able to protect drivers, passengers and pedestrians. Autonomous vehicles could detect safety-critical situations and react instantly to avoid traffic accidents and warn other objects of impending danger. In produc- tion environments, occupational safety levels will improve as production machines or robots detect and avoid the risk of harm to people in their vicinity <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef231"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
  
|-
+
'''Technical interoperability: '''Technical interoperability is usually associated with communication protocols and the infrastructure needed for those protocols to operate. See also [[#Interoperability|Interoperability]] <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef330"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[41] </nowiki></div>
 
  
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+
'''Technology: '''Technology is a body of knowledge devoted to creating tools, processing actions and extracting of materials <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef211"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
Cyber-Physical Systems.  Online at:  [http://cyberphysicalsystems.org/index.htm http://cyberphysicalsystems.org/index.htm]
 
  
|-
+
'''Technology Readiness Level (TRL): '''A tool for describing the maturity of a technology. The scale ranges from level 1 to level 9, where each level characterises the technology development progress, from idea to product. The European Commission defines the nine Technology Readiness Levels as follows: TRL 1: Basic principles observed, TRL 2: Technology concept formulated, TRL 3: Experimental proof of concept, TRL 4: Technology validated in lab, TRL 5: Technology validated in relevant environment (industrially relevant environment in the case of key enabling technologies), TRL 6: Technology demonstrated in relevant environment, (industrially relevant environment in the case of key enabling technologies), TRL 7: System prototype demonstration in operational environment, TRL 8: System complete and qualified, and TRL 9: Actual system proven in operational environment, (competitive manufacturing in the case of key enabling technologies; or in space) <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef166"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[42] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
'''Tensorflow Lite: '''Lightweight AI/ML framework. Feasible to be used in IoT Edge and IoT devices <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef336"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#ML|ML]], [[#AI|AI]], [[#TensorFlow|Tensor Flow]], [[#Framework|Framework]].''</small>
B. Mufson. "''Meet the Artist Using Ritual Magic to Trap Self-Driving Cars''" VICE, 2017.  Online at:  [https://creators.vice.com/en_au/article/qkmeyd/meet-the-artist-using-ritual-magic-to-trap-self-driving-cars https://creators.vice.com/en_au/article/qkmeyd/meet-the-artist-using-ritual-magic-to-trap-self-driving-cars]
 
  
|-
+
'''Test beds: '''An execution environment configured for testing. May consist of specific hardware, OS, network topology, configuration of the product under test, other application or system software, etc. The Test Plan for a project should enumerate the test beds to be used <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef212"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[43] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
'''Things: '''A thing, in the Internet of things, can be a person with a heart monitor implant, a farm animal with a biochip transponder, an automobile that has built-in sensors to alert the driver when tire pressure is low - or any other natural or man-made object that can be assigned an IP address and provided with the ability to transfer [[#Data|data]] over a network <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef213"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Physical layer|Physical layer]].''</small>
M. B. "''Art and Design: What’s the Big Difference''" Critique Magazine, 1998.  
 
  
|-
+
'''TPU: '''Tensor Processing Unit. Coprocessor included in IoT Edge and IoT devices to enhance AI/ML processing.  <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef335"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#ML|ML]], [[#AI|AI]], [[#TensorFlow|Tensor Flow]] .''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[44] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
'''Transdisciplinary: '''Transdisciplinary [[#research|research]] is defined as research efforts conducted by investigators from different disciplines working jointly to create new conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and translational [[#innovation|innovation]]s that integrate and move beyond discipline-specific approaches to address a common problem. Transdisciplinarity requires for creating a unity of intellectual frameworks beyond the disciplinary perspectives, whilst interdisciplinarity integrates knowledge and methods from different disciplines using a real synthesis of approaches. Transdisciplinarity can also be found in the arts and humanities. For example, the Planetary Collegium seeks "the development of transdisciplinary discourse in the convergence of art, science, technology and consciousness research<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef167"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
CPSoS, Online at:  <nowiki>http://www.cpsos.eu/project/what-are-cyber-physical-systems-of-systems/.</nowiki>
 
  
|-
+
'''Transfer Learning: '''AI/ML technique that allows to retrain, a currently existing pre-trained model, with an IoT Edge [[#Device|device]]. This allows AI smart services in the edge for quick adaptations and not depending on a cloud service or internet connectivity of your IoT devices.  Special processing units are required because of the high demanding processing for the training <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef337"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#ML|ML]], [[#AI|AI]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[45] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
'''Transmission range: '''How long/distance an IoT sensor, edge device or gateway can send/receive communication <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef254"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
R. Kissel. "''Glossary of key information security terms''". NIST Interagency Reports NIST IR&nbsp;7298.3, 2013.
 
  
|-
+
'''Transparent: '''Network transparency is the situation in which an operating system or other service allows a user to access a resource (such as an application program or [[#Data|data]]) without the user needing to know, and usually not being aware of, whether the resource is located on the local machine (i.e., the computer which the user is currently using) or on a remote machine (i.e., a computer elsewhere on the network) <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef214"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#AI|AI]], [[#IoT|IoT]], [[#Network communication layer|Network communication layer]]''</small>  
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[46] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
<span id="Trust">'''Trust: '''</span>Relationship between two elements, a set of activities and a security [[#Policy|policy]] in which element x [[#Trust|trust]]s element y if and only if x has confidence that y will behave in a well-defined way (with respect to the activities) that does not violate the given security policy <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef215"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Collaboration and Process Layer|Collaboration and Process Layer]].''</small>
Y. Sun, H. Song, A. J.  Jara, R. Bie. "''Internet of things and big data analytics for smart and connected communities''" IEEE Access, vol. 4, pp. 766-773, 2016.  
 
  
|-
+
'''Trust Management: '''Trust-Management systems provide applications with a standard interface for getting answers to such questions, and provide users with a standard language for writing the policies and credentials that control what is allowed and what isn't <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef216"/>.<br/> <small>Keywords: ''[[#ST|Standard]], [[#Collaboration and Process Layer|Collaboration and Process Layer]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[47] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
'''Trusted IoT: '''The development of standards for [[#Trust|trust]], [[#Privacy|privacy]] and end-to-end security for the [[#IoT|Internet of things]] <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef217"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
P. Zikopoulos, C. Eaton. "''Understanding big data: Analytics for enterprise class hadoop and streaming data''" McGraw-Hill Osborne Media, 2011.  
 
  
|-
+
'''Trustworthy: '''Trustworthiness is the demonstrated ability of the trustee to perform a specified action while adhering to a set of stated principles (integrity) and acting in the best interest of the trustor (benevolence) <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef218"/>. <br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#AI|AI]], [[#IoT|IoT]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]]''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[48] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
 
B. V. Asbroeck, J. Debussche, J. César. "''Building the European Data Economy - Data Ownership''" White Paper, January 2017.
 
  
|-
+
<span id="U">
|
+
'''U'''
<div align="right"><nowiki>[49] </nowiki></div>
+
</span>
 +
----
  
|
+
'''Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communications (uRLLC): '''Ultra-Reliable Low Latency Communications (uRLLC) is one of three sets of use cases defined by 3GPP for 5G, (strict requirements on latency and reliability for mission critical communications, such as remote surgery, autonomous vehicles or the Tactile Internet). For other sets of se cases, see eMBB and mMTC <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef278"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Wireless|Wireless]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data.
 
  
|-
+
'''Urban farming: '''The growing of crops and raising of livestock within an urban environment for consumption within the local area. Activities include, among others, balcony, rooftop and back garden growing, community gardens, allotment gardening and animal grazing on commons <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef168"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[50] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
 
Data Protection Act 1998, Chapter 29.
 
  
|-
+
'''Uu interface: '''The radio/air interface between the mobile and the radio access network <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef343"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Network communication layer|Network communication layer]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[51] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
 
P. Keen. "''Decision support systems: a research perspective''" Center for Information Systems Research, Alfred P. Sloan School of Management., 1980.  Online at:  [http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/47172 http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/47172]
 
  
|-
+
<span id="V">
|
+
'''V'''
<div align="right"><nowiki>[52] </nowiki></div>
+
</span>
 +
----
  
|
+
'''Value Chain: '''The value chain refers to all the activities, from receipt of raw materials to post-sales support that together create and increase the value of a product <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef169"/>.<br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
"''Deep Learning: The Next Evolution in Programming. Presentation''" Online at:  <nowiki>https://public.dhe.ibm.com/common/ssi/ecm/lb/en/lbm12348usen/LBM12348USEN.PDF.</nowiki>
 
  
|-
+
'''Value Network: '''The collection of upstream suppliers, downstream&nbsp;channels&nbsp;to&nbsp;market, and ancillary providers that support a common business model within an [[#Industry|industry]]. When would-be disruptors enter into existing value networks, they must adapt their business models to conform to the value network and therefore fail at disruption because they become co-opted <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef170"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[53] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
'''Vehicle-to-Cloud (V2C) communication: '''Wireless exchange of information between vehicles and the cloud (or edge computing centres), for instance used for tracking and usage-based insurance <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef344"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Automotive|Automotive]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
V. Kapadekar, S. Marolia, B. Rao. "''U.S. Patent Application''" vol. 11, no. 552, p. 942, 2006.  
 
  
|-
+
'''Vehicle to device (V2D): '''Communication model that allows the exchange of information between a vehicle and any electronic [[#Device|device]] that may be connected to the vehicle itself <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef254"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[54] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
'''Vehicle to everything (V2X): '''Communication model that allows the passing of information from a vehicle to any entity that may affect the vehicle, and vice versa<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef255"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Automotive|Automotive]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
<nowiki>Whatis.com</nowiki>. "''Digital''".  Online at:  [http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/digital http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/digital]
 
  
|-
+
'''Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) communication: '''Wireless or wired exchange of information between electric vehicles and the charging station/power grid for such as battery status and correct charging and energy storage and power grid load/peak balancing <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef344"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Automotive|Automotive]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[55] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
'''Vehicle-to-Home (V2H) communication: '''Wireless exchange of information between vehicles and a fixed or temporarily home, for instance used for real-time routing <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef344"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Automotive|Automotive]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
OECD, "''Measuring the Digital Economy: A New Perspective''" OECD Publishing, 2014.  
 
  
|-
+
'''Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communication: '''Two-way wireless transmission of information ([[#Data|data]]) between vehicles and the roadside infrastructure, e.g. embedded equipment in traffic signs/lights. The main components are the on-board unit, roadside equipment and reliable communication channel. V2I communication facilitates local (or regional) traffic coordination. Information on traffic and road conditions can be used to inform, warn or redirect vehicles to a given area. Information from the vehicles can also be collected and redistributed to ensure traffic safety, avoid traffic congestion, improve traffic flow and environment, collect road toll, etc. Interconnectivity between vehicles and the infrastructure play an important role in intelligent transportation systems (ITS) and autonomous driving. High-speed environments and reliable real-time information are important issues for the V2I communication network. Examples on relevant standards are ETSI ITS-G5, IEEE 802.11p, IEEE 1609, and SAE J2735 <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef256"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Wireless|Wireless]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[56] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
'''Vehicle-to-Maintenance (V2M) communication: '''Wireless exchange of information between the vehicle and the vehicle condition responsible (automotive manufacturer or repair shop), including vehicle condition monitoring, predictive maintenance notification or alerts<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef344"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Automotive|Automotive]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
E. Futurium, "''Implementing the Digitising European Industry actions''" Report of WG2: Digital Industrial Platforms, Aug 2017.
 
  
|-
+
'''Vehicle-to-Network (V2N) communication: '''Wireless exchange of information between vehicles and cellular networks, used for value added services such as traffic jam information and real-time routing or available charging stations for electric vehicles (EVs) <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef344"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Automotive|Automotive]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[57] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
'''Vehicle-to-Owner (V2O) communication: '''Wireless exchange of information between vehicles and its owner. Use cases may be car rental, fleet management, freight tracking, etc.)<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef344"/>. <br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Automotive|Automotive]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
D. Nylén; , J. Holmström. "''Digital innovation strategy: A framework for diagnosing and improving digital product and service innovation''" Business Horizons, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 57-67, 2015.  
 
  
|-
+
'''Vehicle-to-pedestrian (V2P) communication '''The wireless transmission of information (data) between the vehicles and pedestrians (usually including bicyclists and other VRUs).<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Automotive|Automotive]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[58] </nowiki> </div>
 
  
|
+
'''Vehicle-to-Users (V2U) communication: '''Wireless or wired exchange of information between the vehicle and its current user including situational information <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef344"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Automotive|Automotive]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
M. Kenney, J. Zysman. "''Choosing a future in the platform economy: the implications and consequences of digital platforms''" in Kauffman Foundation New Entrepreneurial Growth Conference, 2015.  
 
  
|-
+
'''Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication: '''The wireless transmission of information ([[#Data|data]]) between vehicles. V2V communication facilitates exchange of information and early warnings/control to ensure traffic safety, avoid traffic congestion, improve traffic flow and environment, etc. Interconnectivity between vehicles plays an important role in autonomous driving. High-speed environments and reliable real-time information are important issues for the V2V ad-hoc communication network, also referred to as VANETs (vehicular ad-hoc networks) or IVC (inter-vehicle communication). Examples on relevant standards are ETSI ITS-G5, IEEE 802.11p, IEEE 1609, and SAE J2735 <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef257"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Wireless|Wireless]],[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[59] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
'''Vehicular Visible Light Communication (VVLC): '''VVLC is using visible light for data communication. The increasing use of LEDs and its short response time opens for complementary communication solutions and new applications <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef345"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Automotive|Automotive]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
EC-Council, "''Computer Forensics: Investigating Network Intrusions and Cyber Crime''" Nelson Education, 2009.  
 
  
|-
+
'''Verifiability: '''Enables IoT and AI-based systems to demonstrate the functionality and properties they are supposed to have. AI systems for industrial applications must fulfil the same standards as legacy systems and will be applied to safety-, mission- and business-critical tasks. This requires that AI embedded systems can be validated (to reach correct results), verified (verifiable AI) and certified (certifiable AI) for the targeted applications <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef239"/>. <br/><small> Keywords: ''[[#AI|AI]], [[#IoT|IoT]], [[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]]''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[60] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
'''Virtual: '''Representation of an asset in the cyberspace. NOTE: In this context, currency can be defined as either a medium of exchange or a property that has value in a specific environment, such as a video game or a financial trading simulation exercise <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef219"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
European Commission, "''Digital Single Market''" Online at:  [https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/shaping-digital-single-market https://ec.europa.eu/digital-single-market/en/shaping-digital-single-market]
 
  
|-
+
'''Virtual Food Chains: '''The digital representation (virtual) of a supply chain, enabled by the use of digital technologies such as IoT. The use of virtual food chains enables the application of virtual chain management techniques such as advanced remote planning, re-planning, monitoring and control of the different elements and processes involved across the chain <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef16"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Collaboration and Process Layer|Collaboration and Process Layer]], [[#Agrifood|Agrifood]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[61] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
'''Virtual Manufacturing: '''A virtual manufacturing system is a computer system that can produce similar information concerning manufacturing system structure, states and behaviours as one can observe in the real manufacturing systems it represents <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef220"/>.<br/> <small>Keywords: ''[[#Processing layer|Processing layer]].''</small>
European Commission, "''Digitising European Industry - Reaping the full benefits of a Digital Single Market''" in COM (2016) 180 final.
 
  
|-
+
'''Virtual Reality (VR): '''Virtual Reality provides a computer-generated 3D environment that surrounds a user and responds to that individual’s actions in a natural way, usually through immersive head-mounted displays and head tracking. Gloves providing hand-tracking and haptic (touch sensitive) feedback may be used as well. Room-based systems provide a 3D experience for multiple participants; however, they are more limited in their interaction capabilities<ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef14"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Applicationlayer|Application Layer]], [[#Physical layer|Physical layer]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[62] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
+
'''Virtualisation: '''The process of changing something that exists in reality into a virtual version. The abstraction of information technology (IT) resources that masks the physical nature and boundaries of those resources from resource users. An IT resource can be servers, clients, storage, networks, applications or operating systems. Essentially, any IT building block can potentially be abstracted from resource users <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef116"/><ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef14"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
W. Shi, J. Cao, Q. Zhang, Y. Li, L. Xu. "''Edge computing: Vision and challenges''" IEEE Internet of Things Journal, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 637-646, 2016.  
 
  
|-
+
'''Vulnerable road user (VRU): '''VRUs are non-motorised road users, such as pedestrians, bicyclists and horse riders as well as persons with disabilities or reduced mobility/ orientation, and even motorcyclists <ref group="Ref" name="HandbookRef324"/>.<br/><small>Keywords: ''[[#Other cross-cutting concepts|Other cross-cutting concepts]].''</small>
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[63] </nowiki></div>
 
  
|
 
D. D. Gajski, F. Vahid, S. Narayan, J. Gong. “''Specification and design of embedded systems''”, vol. 4, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1994.
 
  
|-
+
<span id="W">
|
+
'''W'''
<div align="right"><nowiki>[64] </nowiki></div>
+
</span>
 
+
----
|
 
J. Song, Y. X.  Wang, F. Xu. "''<nowiki>Reform of embedded system experiments teaching oriented IOT[J]</nowiki>''" Laboratory Science, vol. 1, pp. 20-22, 2011.
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[65] </nowiki></div>
 
 
 
|
 
E.  Khorov, A.  Lyakhov, A.  Krotov, A.  Guschin. "''A survey on IEEE 802.11ah: An enabling networking technology for smart cities''"  Online at:  [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140366414002989 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140366414002989]
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[66] </nowiki></div>
 
 
 
|
 
ATIS Telecom Glossary, "''End-to-end security''", September 2017.  Online at:  <nowiki>http://www.expertglossary.com/definition/end-to-end-security.</nowiki>
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[67] </nowiki></div>
 
 
 
|
 
F. Berman, V. Cert. "''Social and Ethical Behavior in the Internet of Things''", Communications of the ACS Vol 60, Issue 2" 2017.  Online at:  [https://www.forbes.com/sites/ciocentral/2016/12/21/on-the-ethical-use-of-data-vs-the-internet-of-things/%233ab9d0aa1247 https://www.forbes.com/sites/ciocentral/2016/12/21/on-the-ethical-use-of-data-vs-the-internet-of-things/#3ab9d0aa1247]
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[68] </nowiki></div>
 
 
 
|
 
K. Ashton. "That 'Internet of Things' Thing," RFID Journal, 2009.
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[69] </nowiki></div>
 
 
 
|
 
I. Ingardi, L. GirãoxI. "''Building the Hyperconnected Society - IoT Research and Innovation Value Chains, Ecosystems and Markets''" ERL -The Experience Readiness Level, IERC Position Paper, 2016.
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[70] </nowiki></div>
 
 
 
|
 
Oxford Dictionary.
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[71] </nowiki></div>
 
 
 
|
 
B. Burke. "''US Federal CIO Faces a Daunting Challenge''" Online at:  [http://blogs.gartner.com/brian_burke/2009/03/11/us-federal-cio-faces-a-daunting-challenge/ http://blogs.gartner.com/brian_burke/2009/03/11/us-federal-cio-faces-a-daunting-challenge/]
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[72] </nowiki></div>
 
 
 
|
 
F. Bonomi, R. Milito, J. Zhu, S. Addepalli. "''Fog computing and its role in the internet of things''" in In Proceedings of the first edition of the MCC workshop on Mobile cloud computing, ACM, August 2012.
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[73] </nowiki></div>
 
 
 
|
 
FAO, "''Food Security Information for Action Food Security Concepts and Frameworks''"  Online at: [BackUp/BackUp/Ruth/www.fao.org/elearning/course/FC/en/word/trainerresources/learnernotes0411.doc www.fao.org/elearning/course/FC/en/word/trainerresources/learnernotes0411.doc]
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[74] </nowiki></div>
 
 
 
|
 
C. N. Verdouw, J. Wolfert, A. J. M. Beulens, A. Rialland. "''Virtualization of food supply chains with the internet of things''" Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 176, pp. 128-136, 2016.
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[75] </nowiki></div>
 
 
 
|
 
European Union, No. 178/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 January 2002 laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food Safety Authority and laying down procedures in matters of food safety,Online at:  [http://data.europa.eu/eli/reg/2002/178/oj http://data.europa.eu/eli/reg/2002/178/oj]
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[76] </nowiki></div>
 
 
 
|
 
TechTarget, WhatIs, "''Framework''" Online at:  [http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/framework http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/framework]
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[77] </nowiki></div>
 
 
 
|
 
Federal Register -The Daily Journal of the United States Government, "''Federal Trade Commission''" Online at:  [https://www.federalregister.gov/agencies/federal-trade-commission https://www.federalregister.gov/agencies/federal-trade-commission]
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[78] </nowiki></div>
 
 
 
|
 
F. Frederix, P. Friess, O. Vermesan. "''Internet of Things - IoT Governance, Privacy and Security Issues, European Research Cluster on the Internet of Things''" in European Commission, Internet of Things Expert Group (E02514).
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
<div align="right"><nowiki>[79] </nowiki></div>
 
 
 
|
 
Comsol Inc, "''High-Performance Computing''" Online at:  [https://www.comsol.pt/multiphysics/high-performance-computing https://www.comsol.pt/multiphysics/high-performance-computing]
 
 
 
|-
 
|
 
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